best essay on women social life

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To be able to intrigue a reader, the most important thing is to have great characters. Characters should live, feel, express, and act like real people to be seen as genuine. A great way to get to know your characters is to ask questions about them and answer as honestly as possible from their perspective. Use as many or as few as you want and get to know your characters more closely. Use the questions as you would in an interview. I personally find this easier to get into the heads of my characters. What is your full name?

Best essay on women social life fpga thesis report

Best essay on women social life

FIFTH GRADE BOOK REPORT OUTLINE

For women like Tabitha, having a livelihood like this is a path to hope. Tabitha now can use the skills she already has and, together with the support of World Vision, she can make a living that gives bread and jobs to her community. Standing with and investing in women is an important start. From workplaces and schools to homes and communities, women.

When women and girls are supported, they gain opportunities to speak up for their rights, and also to advocate for their communities. They are also able to rise in social standing, and they can feed this into future generations. Topics on women's empowerment: The Women's Empowerment Principles Quotes on women's empowerment The global landscape of women's empowerment Why is empowering girls and women so important? Real stories of women's empowerment Marie: One last chance Tabitha: Baking to give back How can I empower women and girls?

How World Vision is helping empower women. The seven Principles are: Principle 1: Create high-level corporate leadership for gender equality Principle 2: Treat all people fairly at work, respecting and supporting non-discrimination and human rights Principle 3: Ensure the health, wellbeing and safety of all workers, whether male or female Principle 4: Promote education, training and professional development for women Principle 5: Implement supply chain, marketing practices and enterprise development that empower women Principle 6: Champion equality through community initiatives and advocacy Principle 7: Measure and report publicly on progress to create gender equality.

Quotes on women's empowerment. Women are always saying, 'We can do anything that men can do' but men should be saying, 'We can do anything that women can do. I do not wish [women] to have power over men; but over themselves. I raise up my voice—not so I can shout, but so that those without a voice can be heard It all started with one family choosing to sponsor one child. The global landscape of women's empowerment. Why is empowering girls and women so important?

Sponsor a girl. Marie: One last chance When year-old Marie started school, there were equal numbers boys and girls. Tabitha: Baking to give back Smells of fresh bread — voices of ladies talking - a faint glow flickers through the windows. This also meant they were able to expand and attract new team members. How can I empower women and girls? Sponsor a girl : When you sponsor a girl, you can give her the tools to gain an education and take back the rights she deserves.

This is a key way that girls can be empowered to grow up and influence their generation — and the next. Educate yourself by finding out about issues that affect girls — for instance, child marriage. Learn about what World Vision is doing to make change. Read more about our approach to helping girls escape gender inequality. World Vision offers a variety of gifts that contribute to investing in and building up women and girls. Buy female empowerment gifts. We believe that healthy, educated and empowered women and girls are agents of change.

World Vision supports women and girls by: Our sponsorship program. When you sponsor a girl, you not only help give a girl opportunities she may have been denied — but our community-focused approach means that her whole community benefits, too. Helping girls and women learn advocacy skills at all stages of life so that they can use their voices effectively for their own rights Partnering with communities, faith leaders and governments to challenge and correct harmful social norms that keep women and girls from their potential Raising awareness around the causes of poor health and wellbeing that are related to gender Empowering women and girls through water, sanitation and hygiene; health and nutrition; livelihoods training; and education programs to increase their opportunities and ability to reach their full potential.

You can be part of the solution. When a girl is educated, there's so much she can achieve a good job, higher income, healthier children, and improved wellbeing for her family and community. Changes in the social roles of women and men are connected largely with the change of priorities and focus me vs.

For women the change is taking them in the direction of a stronger concentration on themselves and their work individualism , while for men it is leading to a more social direction — concentration on home, family and children Eagly and Diekman, , although, as mentioned earlier, the change in gender social roles has been less extensive for men than women ibidem. One of the few studies examining how individuals adapt to social change was conducted by Diekman et al.

The study showed that people accommodate self-relevant cognitions and behaviors to societal change. Participants who learned about social change for their gender in-group expected greater personal success in gender-based non-traditional careers. Moreover, after learning about women entering non-traditional roles, participants more often sought out information about leadership non-traditional choice than information about physical appearance traditional choice , which means that learning about social change in the roles of women had some behavioral consequences.

If so, it is possible that exposure to different images of gender roles traditional vs. In particular, we investigated the influence of the activation of traditional vs. Differences between women and men in financial decisions and behaviors have been repeatedly proven e. Nevertheless, it is worth asking if those differences will remain unchanged in a world where gender social roles evolve.

To date, researchers report that women are, in general, more risk averse Bajtelsmit and Bernasek, ; Bajtelsmit and VanderHei, ; Bajtelsmit et al. The results pointed to a greater overall propensity of men than women to take various types of risk e. Following the recommendation of Barke et al. It was also confirmed that men are more prone to taking financial risks than women, manifesting in a tendency to gamble, picking aggressive financial instruments and building investment portfolios with a high level of risk Byrnes et al.

A number of studies showed that women, due to their higher risk aversion, are more conservative in their investment decisions than men Bajtelsmit and Bernasek, ; Hinz et al. These studies revealed that women hold a much higher proportion of their portfolios in fixed assets and are less likely to invest in employer stock and equities than men. Taking those results into account, we wondered whether changes in social roles may modify the investment behaviors of an individual.

The basic financial behavior that can reduce financial risk is saving. This provides resources for retirement, enables financing unexpected losses of income and allows a more stable consumption to be maintained over time consumption smoothing.

In the literature some evidence can be found of gender differences in saving behavior Hungerford, ; Seguino and Floro, and the amount of savings Fawcett Society, In a study of 20 semi-industrialized countries, Seguino and Floro found that women are more likely than men to save. However, findings from the United Kingdom indicate that although women have the same propensity as men to save, they tend to accumulate fewer saving than men Fawcett Society, One of the explanations for this result is the fact that women generally put family consumption above personal consumption Fawcett Society, Women reveal more care responsibility for the household, which may lead to more consumption spending and thus less saving ibidem.

On the other hand, this responsibility may lead women to save more than men for precautionary reasons, due to their stronger need to smooth family consumption. Differences between men and women in their saving behaviors may suggest that the salience of different social roles of women traditional vs. The non-traditional role could elicit thinking in a rather masculine way, while the traditional role activation could elicit thinking in a feminine way.

Other gender differences in financial decisions and behaviors concern consumption choices. On the other hand, men buy electronics, cars and alcohol more often. They also like to spend money on sport and entertainment. The above-mentioned results indicate that while women exhibit communal behavior e. The source of those differences could be a higher tendency to take care of the household by women than men, which is in accordance with the stereotypical social role of women Seguino and Floro, In our study we will investigate whether the activation of different social roles of women can influence consumer choices.

The findings from the previous studies showing different financial behavior of women and men Bajtelsmit and Bernasek, ; Maison, prompt the question of whether this difference is an immanent and stable feature of women and men or whether it can be modified by external influences. The main question of the studies presented here was whether the activation of the traditional or non-traditional social role of women can influence their financial choices consumption, saving and investing.

So far, no scientific research has provided the answer to this question. Study 2 aimed at examining the impact of the activation of different social roles on consumer choices. Because the new social role of women is connected with a stronger concentration on themselves and their work and not only on home and family , we expected that the activation of the non-traditional social role would make women more prone to spend their money on products for individual use e.

The main goal of this study was to examine whether and how the activation of different social roles of women may affect their propensity to consume, save and invest. He put forward a psychological law of consumption, according to which, as income increases consumption increases but not by as much as the increase in income ibidem.

In other words, marginal propensity to consume is more than zero but less than one. Thus the greater the disposable income, the higher the part of the income allocated for savings should be. But in the s, empirical studies of long-term time series data from the US economy for the period — by Simon Kuznets showed that consumption was in fact stable in spite of rising income, and APC was relatively stable over long periods. Evidence therefore indicated that there are two different consumption functions: a short-term consumption function with the variable value of the APC, and a long-run consumption function in which the APC was constant regardless of the level of income.

At the end of the study, the participants were fully debriefed. The study was conducted with three conditions: two experimental conditions and one control group. Participants were randomly assigned to each condition where the traditional, non-traditional or neutral social role of women was activated. The social role that was activated was the between subjects IV. The first within subjects IV was the financial activity measured on three levels: consumption, saving, investing.

Different social roles were activated using photos of a woman who was standing next to a table with chairs in a bright room with a cup of tea in her hand. One photo showed a woman in everyday clothes with a kitchen towel and oven glove traditional social role.

The second version of the picture showed person in the role of a modern woman, inconsistent with the traditional stereotype non-traditional social role. She was in clothes suggesting her professional position. The effectiveness of manipulation was checked in the pilot study. The woman on the final version of the traditional picture was described, among others, as housewife, lady of the house, mother taking care of her children, woman focused on house and family.

The woman in the picture representing the non-traditional social role was described, among others, as earning for herself, financially independent, a businesswoman, worker, higher level employee, working in an important position. The woman in the control picture was described, among others, as smiling, nice, cheerful person, girl next door or student. There were no descriptions related to the occupational status. The values of the small, medium and large amounts were established on the basis of a pilot study.

The tool also included the information of what consuming, saving, and investing meant in the context of the study: Consuming meant spending money on products or services; Saving meant keeping the money in non-profitable or almost non-profitable form, without the risk of loss, e. Investing was defined as allocating funds to financial instruments that can generate profits but with the risk of losses, e.

At the beginning of the study students were informed that the researcher was conducting two independent, short pilot studies. The researcher asked them if they were happy to take part in both of them. Participants were asked to take a look at one picture of woman carefully for 30 s the researcher controlled the time. This was either a picture of a woman in the traditional social role I experimental condition , or of a woman in the non-traditional social role II experimental condition or a picture of a woman who was neutral in terms of social role control group.

That was an experimental manipulation. The questions had two aims: 1 To make participants sure that there was a reason to look at the picture; and 2 To check the experimental manipulation question 1. After that, participants were informed that it was the end of the first study and they were asked to take part in another one. The researcher informed participants that the next study was about financial choices. At the end the participants were fully debriefed.

There was no significant difference between the control and the traditional or non-traditional groups. The second main effect of financial activity was significant F [1. There was no significant difference between saving and investing. The third main effect amount level was also significant F [1. TABLE 1. Mean amounts of money in PLN assigned depending on social role, financial activity and amount level.

The two-way interaction between social role and financial activity was significant F [3. However, the two-way interaction between social role and amount level was not significant F [3. The interaction between financial activity and amount level was significant F [1. Moreover, the three-way interaction between social role, financial activity and amount level was also significant F [3.

In order to perform the follow-up tests, the data set was split according to the levels of the variables involved in the significant three-way interaction. In a first step, the data set was divided into the three amount levels small, medium, large. TABLE 2. Mean amounts of money in PLN assigned depending on social role, financial activity for small, medium and large amount level.

No difference was observed between the control and both traditional and non-traditional groups. A significant main effect of financial activity also occurred F [1. Furthermore, the interaction between social role and financial activity was significant F [3. However, the main effect of financial activity was observed F [1. Moreover, the interaction between social role and financial activity was significant F [2. To correctly interpret the obtained interactions and to check the relationships presented above, the small, medium and large amount subsets were divided according to the three categories of financial activity consumption, saving, and investing and ANOVAs were run to compare each social role category traditional, non-traditional, control.

The average amount of money assigned to consumption, saving and investing for small, medium and large amount levels are presented in Figure 1. The last three ANOVAs were used to compare the means of the amount of money destined for investment in the three social role conditions. The contrast tests showed that participants from the non-traditional group were more prone to invest than those from the traditional or control groups if they were asked to divide the medium or large amount of money.

Money assigned to consumption, saving and investing by traditional, nontraditional and control group for different levels of amount Mean amount in PLN. The results of the first study showed the influence of the activation of different social roles of women on the money spending pattern. Presenting women in the traditional social role housewife activated a stronger saving than investing tendency financial behavior more typical for women.

On the contrary, presenting women in the non-traditional social role professional activated a stronger investing than saving tendency financial behavior more typical of men. This result was observed when the medium and large amounts of money were allocated. However, the level of money allocated for consumption stayed the same, independently from the activation of the social role neutral, traditional and non-traditional. This result or, in fact, lack of significant results prompted the question of whether there is really no influence of activation of traditional vs.

Maybe there is no influence on the level of consumption amount of money allocated to it but on the quality of it how much money is allocated for different goods. The study presented here aimed to check whether, despite no differences in the level of consumption in the first study, any qualitative differences in consumer choices could be observed according to the activation of different social roles of women.

A total of women took part in the second study. Participants were randomly assigned to each condition, where thinking of the traditional, non-traditional or neutral social roles of women was activated. The first within subjects IV was the consumption category, measured on five levels: appearance, food and hygiene, equipment, relaxation, other.

The procedure in Study 2 was almost the same to that used in Study 1, with only one difference. After the experimental manipulation, the propensity for different consumer choices appearance, food and hygiene, equipment, relaxation, other was measured. A significant main effect of the consumption category was observed F [2. The main effect of amount level was also significant F [1. TABLE 3. Mean amounts of money in PLN assigned depending on social role, consumption category and amount level.

The two—way interactions between social role and amount level F [2. However, a significant interaction between the amount level and consumption categories occurred F [3. The three—way interaction between social role, amount level and consumption categories was also significant F [6.

For further analysis, the data set was split according to the levels of the variables involved in the significant interaction between social role, consumption category and amount levels. In a first step, the data set was divided into the three amount level subsets. A significant main effect of consumption category occurred F [2. Furthermore the one-way interaction between the social role and consumption categories was significant F [5.

Moreover the one-way interaction between social role and the consumption category was significant F [3. However, the main effect of the consumption category was significant F [2. Furthermore, the one-way interaction between the social role and consumption categories was significant F [5.

TABLE 4. Mean amounts of money in PLN assigned depending on social role and consumption category for small, medium and large amount level. In order to correctly interpret the results, the small, medium and large amount data subsets were divided according to the five categories of consumption appearance, food and hygiene, equipment, relaxation, other and one-way ANOVAs were run to compare each social role category traditional, non-traditional, control.

The descriptive statistics are presented in Figure 2. Further analysis showed that the non-traditional group was prone to spend less money on food and hygiene consumption than other social role groups non-traditional vs. Further t -tests showed that the non-traditional group was prone to spending more money on equipment than other groups non-traditional vs.

Money assigned to consumption categories by each social role group for different amount levels Mean amount in PLN. The first study showed that the amount of money allocated to consumption compared to financial goals like saving and investing was constant in all conditions of social role activation. The second study, as was predicted, showed that depending on the activation of the social role traditional or non-traditional the goal of consumption was different.

The clearest results were visible when the largest amount of money was allocated. The activation of the traditional social role of women increased the amount of money spent on food and hygiene products — thus more collectivistic and functional goals, where purchased products are used more for the whole family and not individually.

The previous studies Study 1 and Study 2 confirmed that the activation of the traditional vs. The goal of this study Study 3 was to examine whether the activation of different social roles of women by a model appearing in advertising can affect the judgment of the advertised product among others its price, as an indirect indicator of quality assessment , and willingness to buy an advertised product.

It was predicted that activation of the traditional social role model as housewife would decrease product judgment, whereas the activation of the non-traditional social role model as professional would increase product judgment, its price and willingness to buy Hypothesis 3.

Ninety women took part in the third study. They were students of the University of Warsaw. Participants were randomly assigned to each condition where thinking of the traditional, non-traditional or neutral social roles of women was activated. The social role activated was the between subjects IV.

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