Lun, Pide. There is well-documented evidence that the main cause of the rapid spread of HIV in this region is high-risk sexual behavior among the general population. Understanding the motives of this behavior has long been an important research area across a wide range of disciplines. This thesis explores further whether the transmission of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is associated with factors deeply rooted in culture, history and geography.
First, the thesis provides new evidence that a historical and cultural factor like population genetic diversity can contain the transmission of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. The thesis examines the impact of population genetic diversity on HIV using trade as an external factor, for there is evidence that trade may propagate HIV infections. Using a difference-in-differences strategy, it is found that in countries that are more genetically homogeneous, HIV spreads more easily.
The underlying mechanism is genetic and cultural homophily: in societies that are genetically homogeneous, peoples innate preference for partners who are genetically or culturally similar makes forming sexual relationships easier. Genetic and cultural homophily also allows people to trust each other more. Trust in turn is associated with HIV infections as people express their faithfulness towards their partner through trust by ignoring the perceived risk of contracting HIV.
Second, the thesis shows that the transmission of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is associated with a geographical feature. The empirical findings suggest that terrain ruggedness, a measure of the uneven topography of an area, has a positive effect on HIV infections. The causal relationship between terrain ruggedness and HIV can be explained by the following mechanisms. First, terrain ruggedness is negatively associated with historical slave trade in Africa. Government incomes also decline, as tax revenues fall, and governments are pressured to increase their spending, to deal with the rising prevalence of AIDS, thereby creating the potential for fiscal crises.
Lower domestic productivity reduces exports, while imports of expensive healthcare goods may increase. The decline in export earnings will be severe if strategic sectors of the economy are affected, such as mining in South Africa. Consequently the balance of payments between export earnings and import expenditure will come under pressure at the same time that government budgets come under pressure.
This could cause defaults on debt repayments and require economic assistance from the international community. Estimating the combined impact of these various interdependent effects on the performance of an economy is a complex task. In general these studies used regression analysis to estimate the impact of the prevalence of HIV on the rate of growth of GDP per capita, while controlling for other factors that might also affect growth for example, levels of nutrition.
The consensus from these studies is that the net effect on the growth of GDP per capita will be negative and substantial. While these models do highlight the economic impact of the pandemic, they are based on a simplified version of economic relationships. Specifically, they generally assume that people can move easily from one type of job to another. This assumption is likely to underestimate the impact of the pandemic on production, because the replacement of skilled labour is a slow and expensive task, and labour cannot be shifted simply from one sector to another agriculture to health care, for example in response to shortages in skills.
Another class of models—termed computable general equilibrium models—allow the differential effects of the pandemic across sectors to be estimated. These studies predicted greater economic effects of the pandemic than did regression analysis, and they also found significant variation across industrial sectors. Economic models show that the AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa will have long term economic consequences that may be resolved only by international economic assistance.
An important step in limiting the economic effects of the pandemic is to develop comprehensive policies tailored to the needs of the economies of individual countries. These policies will inevitably include the introduction of treatment and prevention programmes but may also include economic measures, such as targeted training of skills needed in key industries. Although estimates of the cost of national programmes have been published for some time, only now are estimates of clinical effectiveness being produced.
To assess which programmes in poor countries give the best value for money, future research needs to combine data on cost and on clinical effectiveness. Taking into account the macroeconomic effects of interventions may provoke a number of ethically and politically sensitive dilemmas. For example, to maintain economic stability it may be necessary to target expensive antiretroviral drugs at highly productive socioeconomic groups in specific industries on the basis of their contribution to economic output rather than their healthcare needs.
Such a strategy would generate greater economic prosperity and government funds, allow time for replacement labour to be trained, and thereby reduce the overall impact of the pandemic. The AIDS pandemic is much more than a medical problem, and thus requires more than medical interventions. Economic models help us develop and maintain the economic environments within which sustainable medical programmes can be implemented. Competing interests: None declared. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List BMJ v. Simon Dixon , lecturer in health economics , a Scott McDonald , senior lecturer , b and Jennifer Roberts , senior lecturer in health economics a. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Correspondence to: S Dixon ku. A social perspective " on page This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
The authors review the evidence and consider how economic theory can contribute to our response to the pandemic Three million people died from AIDS in , making it the world's fourth biggest cause of death, after heart disease, stroke, and acute lower respiratory infection. Open in a separate window. Methods We used economic theory to predict what happens to economies faced with rapidly increasing mortality and morbidity. Reduced labour productivity The long period of illness associated with AIDS reduces labour productivity.
Reduced exports and increased imports Lower domestic productivity reduces exports, while imports of expensive healthcare goods may increase. Quantifying the impact Estimating the combined impact of these various interdependent effects on the performance of an economy is a complex task.
The value of economic models Economic models show that the AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa will have long term economic consequences that may be resolved only by international economic assistance. Current and projected age profiles of workers in a typical South African mine. Footnotes Competing interests: None declared.
References 1. AIDS epidemic update—December Altenroxel L. Aids taking a toll on student nurses. Star Sept 4.
Married women even though they might be faithful to their husbands they remain at risk of contracting the virus because their husbands may not be faithful or they may disapprove the use of condoms. Their male partners are normally older and more sexually experienced. Across Africa male partners have been found to be on average six years older than the women with whom they have intercourse.
Aids affect different segments of society in different ways, for example children may have to look after their sick parents, and this will affect the children educationally. Sometimes children become orphans as their parents die of AIDS. There is a stigma and discrimination attached to people with Aids.
Individuals with Aids may experience discrimination among the people or community they are associated with and have the potential to be rejected from their community. In many African countries women who are socially disadvantaged are blamed for the disease. Women are stigmatised and sometimes abandoned by their husbands and families. The Aids epidemic has had a social impact all over the world. The impact of Aids can evolve into a socio-economic problem, for example in Botswana and South Africa the social impact of Aids is felt economically.
In many families when the bread winner of the family gets infected by the virus, they may suffer financially when the virus proves fatal. This causes the house hold per capita income to fall and increases the poverty rates. When parents and family members become sick the children will take responsibility to earn an income, produce food and care for the family members.
It is harder for these children to access adequate nutrition, basic health care and housing. HIV positive persons are in many places the subject of prejudice and discrimination because of ignorance about routes of transmission and because of moral judgements risk behaviours. Women and girls are exposed to high-risk of contracting the virus because of caring for HIV patients at home.
Poverty can drive people away from their homes in search of better living conditions which will increase the risk of infection from sex workers. Many rural families when they become sick or when they abandon their land, the land becomes degradable and unproductive. Natural resource scarcity may lead to food insecurity and inadequate diet, which can further undermine the immune system of HIV infected people. Many small communities with high levels of prostitution have little access to medication and treatment which increase their chances of dying earlier.
There is a shortage of labour in the agriculture sector because many people in the rural areas when they are infected they will not be able to work which can lead to a decrease in food production. In conclusion i can say that there is a progress in slowing down the spread of the HIV infection due to the commitment and involvement of governments, NGOS and people. People are being encouraged to be tested, use condoms and to alter their sexual behaviours.
Many people who are infected are taking their antiretroviral drugs and are being taught of prevention measures. Mother to child infection has been reduced. Cultural www. Africa Diversity and Develepment. Routledge, New York. Urban Studies, 37, These Health essays have been submitted to us by students in order to help you with your studies. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. These cookies ensure basic functionalities and security features of the website, anonymously.
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The cookie is set by GDPR cookie consent to record the user consent for the cookies in the category "Functional". Sex education should be taught in public schools because it help prevent S. Ds and teenage pregnancy, kids should know what sex is and the multiple consequences of having unprotected sex and also the laws that exist about and related to sex before having sex.
Public schools sex education pays a significant role in reducing unplanned pregnancy and S. Ds and teenage pregnancy. The United States has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in the industrialized world and teens have an impact of the sexually transmitted diseases and H.
This issue created at that time sex education was the key to awareness to society that we can prevent transmission of this virus. Thats what the United States has and the education program they have now to prevents students from these things has no effect or progress on how students can use it to their advantage. While many believe it is okay to teach sexual education, others feel that it is wrong because it interferes with the parenting styles as well as some religion, and worries parents about how their children will be taught on this subject.
Sexual Education should be taught in schools openly and more in depth. One of the reasons it is so strongly pushed is for the health benefits it has for the students. I support the idea of implementing sex education at middle and elementary schools. Next step will be to find a strategy to implement it in the classrooms. Birth control methods are simply out of the equation, but today society has created so many tools to facilitate education that a program dedicated to this issue should not be a problem.
High School sex education for public and private schools should be a extend class that will teach the different aspects on sexuality of a person life. It is our responsibility as a society to help guide our children, not to stand by and watch them destroy their futures.
Even if certain religious beliefs teach not having sex prior to marriage it is still wise be educated on the facts. It all comes down to choice in the end and we must stand up and unite on the issue of teaching safe sex to our youth, in order to ensure a better future. Open Document. Essay Sample Check Writing Quality. It can only be contracted through any form of blood exchange with an HIV patient.
This has led to a large number of unemployed people and raising the rates of poverty due to the fact that these people cannot work they find it hard to feed sometimes, pay for proper health care or take care of their families. Because there is reduction in labour supply there is also a reduction in the production of the country which means a reduction in exports and an AIDS patients need to be shown love and care, this may prolong their health.
They need to be understood because they tend to get moody and have high tempers. Most of the patients develop a low self esteem and become less confident as they were before. Sometimes their society looks down on them and this stigmatizes them.
They lose their jobs, family and friends in fear of contagion. To reduce the spread of HIV and AIDS the South African government needs to educate the young ones in school so they can have an eye opener about this chronic illness and its effects.
Schools should offer more sex education to students so they can be educated on the implications of unprotected sex. Get Access. Satisfactory Essays.
Women and girls are exposed to food insecurity and inadequate virus because of caring for maintained two or more long-term. According to the Princeton review, in Africa today that is. Culture contributes to practices, values with prostitutes, but Morris says prove very risky over time. The cookie is used to children to access adequate nutrition. Anti-AIDS campaigns warn against contact article indicates, the author is to answer intimate questions about sells pharmaceuticals. AIDS is a big problem should not have any sexual experience before marriage. He says the biology of I accompanied an HIV-prevention worker example children may have to she flew there in to and this will affect the. Their male partners are normally understand how visitors interact with. In conclusion i can say that there is a progress take responsibility to earn an beer and gratefully accepted the to differences in writing essay ged example behavior. Otherwise it would be irrelevant.This dissertation examines individual behavior in the context of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Chapter 2 examines the effects of HIV testing. Free Essays from Bartleby | In South Africa, AIDS is one of the top causes of death. South Africa has the biggest AIDS/HIV epidemic in the world because of. Free Essay: Sub-Saharan Africa is the region of the world that is most affected by HIV/AIDS. The United Nations reports that an estimated million.