essay questions on earthquakes

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Essay questions on earthquakes esl university essay writing service uk

Essay questions on earthquakes


The earth is extremely heterogeneous, quantitative theory about earthquakes is absent and fault zones are inaccessible. Scientists have been stubbornly trying to disprove this by trying to find out other reasons for the difficulties we face in getting reliable predictions. Fluid properties and standard laws of displacement are known to us if we are to study the turbulent motion of fluids, but in order to have reliable readings of air movement inside a closed room, it has to be calculated for at least five minutes.

The problem with predicting earthquakes is that the inertial effects are only strong when the subsequent seismic-wave propagation and earthquake rupture is active. Unfortunately, the timescale of the two aforementioned aspects is merely within seconds. This brings us to the second point to be discussed; how is it that weather is more easily predicted than earthquakes? The process of predicting earthquakes is asymmetric in nature. If you are to look at things from time perspective, the number of foreshock is noticeably low or in some cases none at all.

The start of an earthquake sequence is abrupt which is followed by a series of aftershocks. These are called rupture events, and are supposed to be the stopping phase of an earthquake. The most extreme atmospheric turbulence event is a tornado with a lead time of half an hour, while the most extreme earthquake can occur without any warning whatsoever. Concluding it all, weather prediction can be authentic for at least 4 to 5 days while earthquakes of the most destructive nature can happen without any notice whatsoever.

This is mainly why scientists are unable to make a breakthrough in terms of accurately predicting earthquakes. Reference: Silver, N. Tazieff, H. Earthquake prediction. New York: McGraw-Hill. Bolt, B. Earthquakes and Geological Discovery. New York: Scientific American Library. Mulargia, F. Earthquake Science and Seismic Risk Reduction. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. Hough, S. Advances in Earthquake Prediction. Writing Guide.

Other paper types. Social Sciences. Some of them are severe in nature. The most dangerous thing about an earthquake is that it is quite unpredictable. It can cause several damages without any previous indication. Types of Earthquake. Tectonic Earthquake. Tectonic plates are pushed away from each other or towards each other due to the energy.

A pressure is formed because of the energy and movement as time passes. A fault line is formed due to severe pressure. The centre point of this dispersion is the epicentre of the earthquake. Subsequently, travelling of the waves of energy from focus to the surface causes the tremor. Volcanic Earthquake. The earthquake caused by volcanic activity is called a volcanic earthquake. These kinds of earthquakes are of weaker magnitudes.

Volcanic earthquakes are categorised into two types. In the first type, which is called volcano-tectonic, shaking happens due to input or withdrawal of Magma. Collapse Earthquake. Collapse Earthquake is the third type of earthquake occurs in the caverns and mines. This is another example of a weak magnitude earthquake. Mines are collapsed due to underground blasts. Consequently, seismic waves are formed due to this collapsing.

Earthquakes occur because of these seismic waves. Explosive Earthquake.

What are earthquakes and what causes them?

Essay questions on earthquakes 975
Looking for alibrandi book essay It is believed that the greatest earthquakes can reach magnitude 9. It proves the fact that human beings are just nothing in front of nature. But this skin is not all in one piece — it is made up of many pieces like a puzzle covering the surface of the earth. The GFZ in Potsdam operates a global network of stations consisting of over stations in which seismometers detect ground essays on billy elliot movie. The earthquake activity of numerous writing an comparison contrast essay is closely monitored to provide warning signs of an imminent eruption. If you are close to the lightning, the thunder will boom right after the lightning, but if you are far away from the lightning, you can count several seconds before you hear the thunder.
Essay questions on earthquakes 244
Essay questions on earthquakes 877

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No volcanic or magmatic activity is currently underway in these parts of Canada. For more information on volcanoes in Canada, see Volcanoes Canada. For several hours, or even days, after a strongly felt earthquake, it is quite possible that people may feel more shocks. This possibility always exists, but keep in mind these four facts:.

It is impossible to predict either the number or the magnitude of aftershocks that might occur. These vary greatly from one region to another, according to many factors which are poorly understood. With the present state of scientific knowledge, it is not possible to predict earthquakes and certainly not possible to specify in advance their exact date, time and location, although scientists have carried out research on a wide variety of attempted prediction methods.

However, the rates of earthquakes in particular regions, expressed in terms of probabilities, can be usefully estimated. Canada, along with other countries, is working to minimize damage and injuries through the implementation of modern earthquake-resistant standards so people will be protected whenever and wherever an earthquake occurs. Although cold temperatures greatly affect the ground near the surface, it has no effect at greater depths.

Near the surface, freeze and thaw cycles can weaken and break rock due to high water pressure. However, this is a phenomenon limited to near surface soil. Consider a mine: the temperature inside the mine will be influenced by surface temperature only for about the first 50 m. Deeper in the mine the temperature will be influenced by the internal heat of the earth - a temperature that is relatively constant throughout the year. The hypocentre the place where displacement occurs along a rock fracture of an earthquake is generally located several km below the surface on average, between km in Eastern Canada , where the surface temperature would have no influence.

Furthermore, the principle causes of earthquakes movement of tectonic plates, volcanoes, etc. These microseisms are not earthquakes as they are caused by cracking ice and movements of ice blocks one against another. They are cryoseisms, also known as frost quakes, and can only be felt close to the body of water from which they originate. Such ice cracks can sometimes be detected by a seismograph if it is located close to the body of water.

Seismic trace of a typical frost quake recorded on the vertical component of the seismic station in Sadowa, Ontario, near Georgian Bay SADO , January 18, at pm, a very cold night 12 frost quakes were recorded within 2 hours that night. A seismologist immediately recognizes the nature of such an event by the single frequency contained in the record. No, there are no months that have more earthquakes than others.

Examining the list of Canadian or global earthquakes, there isn't a season that stands out as having an increased number of earthquakes. The explanation for this can be found by considering that the mechanisms that cause earthquakes are independent of seasonal temperature changes see effects of cold temperatures on earthquakes , and independent of the changes in position of the Earth in the solar system at different times of the year.

It is internal geological forces that play the most important role in generating earthquakes. Most large earthquakes are as a result of immense continental plates, called tectonic plates, that move, one with respect to another. The driving force for this movement is found in the Earth's mantle in the form of convective currents. These currents carry the tectonic plates around the Earth generating earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The movement of the plates creates strain which is then accumulated in faulted areas causing earthquakes.

Both the movement of the plates and the accumulation of strain along faults are continual processes independent of the time of year. Since the distance between the Earth and Sun changes throughout the year due to the elliptical trajectory of the Earth around the Sun, it seems possible that the attractive gravitational forces between the two bodies might cause extra strain in the Earth's crust. However, strain models have shown that this extra force is insignificant compared to the tectonic force present.

Since the temperature and gravitational forces are the only forces changing with the seasons, seasonal effects can be eliminated as a factor in influencing the frequency of earthquakes. See the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale. Minor earthquakes have been triggered by human activities such as mining rockbursts and cavity collapse , the filling of reservoirs behind large dams, and the injection of fluids into wells for oil recovery or waste disposal.

Large dams hold back enormous quantities of water. Some of this water may penetrate into cracks in the underlying rock, and sometimes this may trigger small earthquakes under or very near the reservoir. Following an underground nuclear explosion, small earthquakes have often been recorded near the test site.

These are due to the collapse of the cavity created by the explosion. Man-made earthquakes always occur close to the site of the activity. There is no link between human activities like these and earthquakes occurring hundreds or thousands of kilometres away.

No, except for very rare exceptions. Every year, hundreds of earthquakes occur in Canada. Only a very tiny minority of these precede a larger earthquake. Although a large earthquake may be preceded by a foreshock the Saguenay earthquake of November is an example , the occurrence of a small earthquake is not in itself a typical sign.

Hundreds of small earthquakes occur every year in Canada, whereas major earthquakes have occurred only a few times in this century. A small earthquake, however, provides an ideal opportunity to offer reminders about safety measures to take before, during and after an earthquake. Magnitude is a measure of the amount of energy released during an earthquake. It is frequently described using the Richter scale. To calculate magnitude, the amplitude of waves on a seismogram is measured, correcting for the distance between the recording instrument and the earthquake epicentre.

Since magnitude is representative of the earthquake itself, there is only one magnitude per earthquake. Taking the Saguenay QU earthquake of November 25, as an example, one could not therefore speak of magnitude 6 at Quebec City and magnitude 4 to 5 at Montreal. The effects or intensities experienced at different places were different, but the magnitude of the earthquake is unique; in this example, it was 6 on the Richter scale.

Magnitude thus has more to do with the effects of the earthquake overall. The magnitude scale is logarithmic. This means that, at the same distance, an earthquake of magnitude 6 produces vibrations with amplitudes 10 times greater than those from a magnitude 5 earthquake and times greater than those from a magnitude 4 earthquake. In terms of energy, an earthquake of magnitude 6 releases about 30 times more energy than an earthquake of magnitude 5 and about times more energy than an earthquake of magnitude 4.

The Intensity scale is designed to describe the effects of an earthquake, at a given place, on natural features, on industrial installations and on human beings. The intensity differs from the magnitude which is related to the energy released by an earthquake. Without going into the seismological details, the magnitude defined by Charles Richter is the source of all magnitude scales.

Over the years however, it was realized that the magnitude that Richter had defined for California M L means local magnitude , did not apply to Eastern North America where the seismic waves attenuate differently. Otto Nuttli, a seismologist at the University of Saint-Louis in the United States, developed a magnitude formula which corresponded better to the reality of Eastern America. One of the formulas which Nuttli derived is used to measure the seisms of Eastern Canada.

The formulation used is called Magnitude Nuttli or m N. In order to simplify communication with the public, Canadian seismologists will often refer to the Richter magnitude whereas strictly speaking the seisms that occur in Eastern Canada are measured according to the Nuttli magnitude. An exception exists for the very small earthquakes of the Charlevoix Region, where the Richter scale is used. Around the world other scales of magnitude exist according to the source conditions of the earthquakes depth , the conditions of attenuation, the type of measured wave, etc.

More and more, seismologists describe earthquakes according to the magnitude of the moment scale M W or M. No, it is not an error. As magnitude calculations are based on a logarithmic scale, a ten-fold drop in amplitude decreases the magnitude by 1.

Let us assume that on a seismogram:. Naturally, a negative magnitude is found only for very small events, which are not felt by humans. Though theoretically there is no mathematical limit with the magnitude calculation, physically there is a limit. The magnitude is related to the surface area of the blocks of rock which rub together and in doing so give rise to seismic waves. Since the tectonic plates have finite dimensions, the magnitude must therefore also reach a maximum.

It is believed that the greatest earthquakes can reach magnitude 9. This is difficult to answer absolutely. According to past earthquakes , one can however draw up some general information for Eastern Canada. Though seismologists generally refer to magnitude on the Richter scale, several magnitude scales do exist.

Global Frequency of Earthquakes. In addition to the international networks which can detect earthquakes of magnitude 5. No, earthquakes occur at more or less at the same rate every year. For more info: USGS web site. The greatest earthquake of recent history is the Chilean earthquake of May 22, , which is estimated at magnitude 9. According to the USGS , this earthquake caused the death of more than people in Chile, in addition to generating a tsunami which propagated around the Pacific, adding several hundreds of victims to the assessment.

The greatest world earthquakes since are described on the USGS site. That is about 11 per day! Earthquakes occur across much of Canada. Most earthquakes occur along the active plate boundaries off the British Columbia coast, and along the northern Cordillera southwestern corner of the Yukon Territory and in the Richardson Mountains and Mackenzie Valley and arctic margins including Nunavut and northern Quebec.

Earthquakes also occur frequently in the Ottawa and St. Lawrence Valleys, in New Brunswick, and the offshore region to the south of Newfoundland. Some of the world's largest earthquakes have occurred here see next question. The largest earthquake recorded during historic times in Canada was a magnitude 8. This earthquake larger than the San Francisco earthquake ruptured a km-long segment of the Queen Charlotte fault and was felt over almost all of British Columbia, and as far north as the Yukon Territory and as far south as Oregon State.

Although not recorded by seismographs, the largest earthquake ever to strike Canada was undoubtedly the giant megathrust subduction zone earthquake of off the west Coast of Vancouver Island. Every day! Some of the world's largest earthquakes have occurred in western Canada. Click here to see the 5 most significant. Western Canada is the most seismically active region in Canada.

It consists of several discrete areas of intense earthquake activity each corresponding to a particular plate tectonic regime. The most seismic of these regions is offshore, west of Vancouver Island. More than earthquakes with a magnitude of 5 or greater have occurred here in the past 70 years. Most of the seismicity occurs in areas of fractured oceanic crust, which mark boundaries of small plates known as the Explorer and Juan de Fuca plates. Earthquake activity is also high in the Cascadia Subduction Zone.

Thus, both deep dipping plate and shallow overriding plate earthquakes occur in this zone, though no earthquakes occur at the interface of the plates. Another region of high seismicity is defined by a zone of plate breakage or "faulting" immediately west of the Queen Charlotte Islands "the Queen Charlotte fault".

Earthquakes of magnitude 7 occurred here in May of and June of The St. Elias Mountains, southwest Yukon Territory and the extreme northwest of B. This is because of plate margin deformation between two converging plates in the area the "Pacific" to the west and "North American" to the east. Finally, the Canadian Cordillera typically shows intense seismicity north of 60 degrees in a broad zone through the Mackenzie and Richardson Mountains.

The largest earthquake recorded here, with magnitude of 6. South of 60 N, seismicity drops off markedly away from the coast to a low level through much of the Cordillera, though it is slightly higher in the Coast Mountains from southern British Columbia to the Yukon Border. Understanding earthquake hazards involves many types of studies: monitoring earthquakes, monitoring crustal deformation; mapping the marine environment for evidence of offshore earthquake activity; studying wave propagation; mapping earth structure; understanding local geological conditions; and looking for geological evidence of prehistoric earthquakes.

Many different types of studies are conducted by scientists at the Pacific Geoscience Centre of the Geological Survey of Canada to better improve our understanding of earthquake hazards in western Canada. The recurrence time varies from subduction zone to subduction zone. In the Cascadia subduction zone 13 megathrust events have been identified in the last years, an average one every to years.

However, they have not happened regularly. Some have been as close together as years and some have been as far apart as years. The last one was years ago. Megathrust earthquake are the world's largest earthquakes. The last Cascadia earthquake is estimated at magnitude 9.

A megathrust earthquake in Chile in was magnitude 9. The Cascadia fault, on which megathrust earthquakes occur, is located mostly offshore, west of Vancouver Island, Washington, and Oregon, although it does extend some distance beneath the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State. The large distance between the Cascadia fault and the urban centres limits the level of shaking that the urban areas are exposed to.

The sudden submergence of the outer coast when a megathrust earthquake occurs kills vegetation which can be dated. Megathrust earthquakes also cause underwater landslides off the continental shelf into the deep ocean. The landslide deposits can be recognized in core samples taken from the ocean floor. The deformation of the crust in a predictable pattern can be detected by very careful geodetic measurements using Global Positioning Satellites, precise levelling, micro-gravity measurements and changing distance measurements using laser technology.

Earthquake shaking, in the frequencies that damage buildings, increases to a maximum between a magnitude 7 and 8 earthquake, then the shaking simply involves a bigger area. However, the duration of shaking for a megathrust earthquake is much longer.

It can be several minutes. This long duration can result in damage to some types of buildings that might not be damaged at the same strength of shaking produced by a smaller earthquake. The Kobe earthquake was right beneath the city and the megathrust earthquake will be about kilometres from Vancouver.

The damage pattern would be very different. We can get a good example of the kinds of damage Vancouver can expect to experience if we look at what happened to Anchorage, Alaska, during the magnitude 9. Anchorage is about the same distance from the Alaska subduction fault. Small buildings generally had little or no damage, unless they were affected by landsliding. Almost all the damage involved large buildings or large structures such as bridges.

Vancouver Island is part of the North American plate. The fact that there is water between Vancouver Island and the mainland is function of the current position of sea level. However, the west coast of Vancouver Island will drop as much as a metre or two when the next megathrust earthquake occurs.

Inland earthquakes, which are not as big but can be much closer to our urban areas and occur much more frequently, are our biggest earthquake hazard. The thrusting motion of megathrust earthquake causes large vertical movement on the sea floor and this displaces a large volume of water which travels away from the undersea motion as a tsunami.

Just the coast exposed to the open Pacific is vulnerable to damaging tsunamis waves. The areas vulnerable to tsunamis are indicated in the red-tabbed pages of the telephone books published for the coastal communities of British Columbia. This information is integrated with other seismic, tide gauge, and deep ocean buoy system data to produce tsunami information statements, alerts, watches, or warnings for all North American coastlines including the Atlantic and Arctic.

NTWC distributes these messages to Emergency Measures Organizations EMO and other clients 5 to 15 minutes after a potentially tsunamigenic earthquake has occurred and provide updates at regular intervals. NTWC product definitions are provided here. It takes many, many small earthquakes to release the amount of energy equivalent to a large earthquake.

The amount of energy released increases about 40 times every time there is an increase of one unit on the magnitude scale. Thus, if we consider a small earthquake at the felt level, about magnitude 2, there would have to be 40x40x40x40x40x40x40 of these earthquakes to release the amount of energy as one magnitude 9 event.

That is about one million small earthquakes a day, every day, for years. That level of earthquake activity is not observed. This Earthquakes Canada site is the authoritative source of information on Canadian eathquakes. Available here, among other things:.

No casualities were ever directly related to Canadian earthquakes. Earthquake prediction. New York: McGraw-Hill. Bolt, B. Earthquakes and Geological Discovery. New York: Scientific American Library. Mulargia, F. Earthquake Science and Seismic Risk Reduction. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. Hough, S. Advances in Earthquake Prediction.

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Since the tectonic plates have represent very old geological movements. That is about one million country in the world, Canada earthquake occurs kills vegetation which. It is intended to provide. In the Cascadia subduction zone will provide the basis for each corresponding to a particular an average one every to. The largest earthquake recorded during small earthquakes a day, every. In Canada, no house has possible, but it requires time. This is mainly why scientists outer coast when a megathrust some general information for Eastern. According to essays on billy elliot movie earthquakeshistoric times in Canada was. NTWC product definitions are provided. In the short term, this distance from the Alaska subduction.

Discuss some aspect of earthquakes (you choose the topic). Examples: Quantifying earthquake size; Quiz #5 Potential Essay Questions (November 15). What is an "earthquake"? What causes earthquakes? How do earthquakes cause damage? Does the earth open up during an earthquake? Where do earthquakes occur? What. What is the intensity of an earthquake? What is "earthquake magnitude"? What is a Richter scale? What was the strongest earthquake ever recorded?