essay on mexico in spanish

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Essay on mexico in spanish franklin essay

Essay on mexico in spanish

From the late nineteenth century, Protestants began to make inroads in Mexico. The government encouraged British and U. Commercial agriculture developed in northern Mexico, with many investors from the U. The Mexican government ordered a survey of land with the aim of selling it for development.

In this period, many indigenous communities lost their lands and the men became landless wage earners on large landed enterprises haciendas. Changes in Mexican law allowed for private enterprises to own the subsoil rights of land, rather than continuing the colonial law that gave all subsoil rights to the State.

An industrial manufacturing sector also developed, particularly in textiles. At the same time, new enterprises gave rise to an industrial work force, which began organizing to gain labor rights and protections. As an integral aspect of the liberal project was secular education.

He made no attempt, however, to establish a family dynasty, naming no relative as his successor. Political opposition had been suppressed and there were few avenues for a new generation of leaders. But his announcement set off a frenzy of political activity, including the unlikely candidacy of the scion of a rich landowning family, Francisco I. The September centennial celebration of independence was the last celebration of the Porfiriato.

The Mexican Revolution starting in saw a decade of civil war, the "wind that swept Mexico. The Mexican Revolution was a decade-long transformational conflict in Mexico, with consequences to this day. Madero in In that army was dissolved as an institution. Following the revolutionaries' victory against Huerta, revolutionary armies sought to broker a peaceful political solution, but the coalition splintered, plunging Mexico into civil war again. Constitutionalist general Pancho Villa , commander of the Division of the North, broke with Carranza and allied with Zapata.

Carranza became the de facto head of Mexico, and the U. In , the winners met at a constitutional convention to draft the Constitution of , which was ratified in February Said Constitution strengthened the anticlerical provisions that were carried over from the Constitution. It is estimated that the war killed , of the population of 15 million.

The U. During the Revolution, the Taft administration supported the Huerta coup against Madero, but when Woodrow Wilson was inaugurated as president in March , it refused to recognize Huerta's regime and allowed arms sales to the Constitutionalists. Wilson ordered troops to occupy the strategic port of Veracruz in , which was lifted. Pershing in an unsuccessful attempt to capture Villa. Carranza pushed back against U. The expeditionary forces withdrew as the U.

Consolidating power, President Carranza had peasant-leader Emiliano Zapata assassinated in Carranza chose a political and revolutionary no-body to succeed him. Since , no member of the military has been President of Mexico.

The post-revolutionary project of the Mexican government sought to bring order to the country, end military intervention in politics, and create organizations of interest groups. Workers, peasants, urban office workers, and even the army for a short period were incorporated as sectors of the single party that dominated Mexican politics from its founding in He gained recognition from the United States and took steps to settle claims with companies and individuals that lost property during the Revolution.

He imposed his fellow former Sonoran revolutionary general, Calles, as his successor, prompting an unsuccessful military revolt. As president, Calles provoked a major conflict with the Catholic Church and Catholic guerrilla armies when he strictly enforced anticlerical articles of the Constitution.

The Church-State conflict was mediated and ended with the aid of the U. Ambassador to Mexico and ended with an agreement between the parties in conflict, by means of which the respective fields of action were defined. Calles could not become president again, since he has just ended his term.

He sought to set up a structure to manage presidential succession, founding the party that was to dominate Mexico until the late twentieth century. Calles declared that the Revolution had moved from caudillismo rule by strongmen to the era institucional institutional era. Despite not holding the presidency, Calles remained the key political figure during the period known as the Maximato — This included the Mexican oil expropriation in March , which nationalized the U.

This movement would result in the creation of the state-owned Mexican oil company Pemex. The government poured huge resources into building new facilities. At the same time, there was political unrest by university students and others with those expenditures, while their own circumstances were difficult.

The culmination was the Tlatelolco Massacre , [] which claimed the lives of around protesters based on conservative estimates and perhaps as many as Although the economy continued to flourish for some, social inequality remained a factor of discontent. PRI rule became increasingly authoritarian and at times oppressive in what is now referred to as the Mexican Dirty War.

His government had to contend with mistrust of Mexicans and increasing economic problems. He instituted some with electoral reforms. Economic problems worsened in his early term, then massive reserves of petroleum were located off Mexico's Gulf Coast. Pemex did not have the capacity to develop these reserves itself, and brought in foreign firms. Those foreign banks were happy to lend to Mexico because the oil reserves were enormous and future revenues were collateral for loans denominated in U.

When the price of oil dropped, Mexico's economy collapsed in the Crisis. Interest rates soared, the peso devalued, and unable to pay loans, the government defaulted on its debt. President Miguel de la Madrid —88 resorted to currency devaluations which in turn sparked inflation.

In the s the first cracks emerged in the PRI's complete political dominance. In there was massive electoral fraud , with results showing that Salinas had won the election by the narrowest percentage ever. There were massive protests in Mexico City to the stolen election. Salinas took the oath of office on 1 December Although Salinas won by fraud, he embarked on a program of neoliberal reforms which fixed the exchange rate of the peso, controlled inflation, opened Mexico to foreign investment, and began talks with the U.

In order to do that, the Constitution of was amended in several important ways. Article 27, which allowed the government to expropriate natural resources and distribute land, was amended to end agrarian reform and to guarantee private owners' property rights. The anti-clerical articles that muzzled religious institutions, especially the Catholic Church, were amended and Mexico reestablished of diplomatic relations with the Holy See , to which the Mexican State did not recognize as a political entity.

The agreement came into effect on 1 January ; the same day, the Zapatista Army of National Liberation EZLN started a two-week-long armed rebellion against the federal government, and has continued as a non-violent opposition movement against neoliberalism and globalization.

His political coalition, led by his left-wing party founded after the elections, includes parties and politicians from all over the political spectrum. The coalition also won a majority in both the upper and lower congress chambers. AMLO's one of his many nicknames success is attributed to the country's other strong political alternatives exhausting their chances as well as the politician adopting a moderate discourse with focus in conciliation.

Mexico has contended with high crime rates , official corruption, narcotrafficking , and a stagnant economy. Many state-owned industrial enterprises were privatized starting in the s, with neoliberal reforms, but Pemex, the state-owned petroleum company is only slowly being privatized, with exploration licenses being issued.

Although there were fears of electoral fraud in Mexico's presidential elections , [] the results gave a mandate to AMLO. After winning a landslide victory in the July presidential elections, he became the first leftwing president for decades. During the COVID pandemic , as of mid-March , the country had a few cases , but as of mid-July, there were over , cases reported. However, the pandemic situation worsened significantly. Mexico's total area is 1,, km 2 , sq mi , making it the world's 13th largest country by total area.

From its farthest land points, Mexico is a little over 2, mi 3, km in length. On its north, Mexico shares a 3, km 1, mi border with the United States. On its south, Mexico shares an km mi border with Guatemala and a km mi border with Belize. Mexico is crossed from north to south by two mountain ranges known as Sierra Madre Oriental and Sierra Madre Occidental , which are the extension of the Rocky Mountains from northern North America. From east to west at the center, the country is crossed by the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt also known as the Sierra Nevada.

Three major urban agglomerations are located in the valleys between these four elevations: Toluca , Greater Mexico City and Puebla. The scientific consensus is that the Chicxulub impactor was responsible for the Cretaceous—Paleogene extinction event. The Tropic of Cancer effectively divides the country into temperate and tropical zones. Land north of the Tropic of Cancer experiences cooler temperatures during the winter months. South of the Tropic of Cancer, temperatures are fairly constant year round and vary solely as a function of elevation.

This gives Mexico one of the world's most diverse weather systems. Both Mexican coasts, except for the south coast of the Bay of Campeche and northern Baja, are also vulnerable to serious hurricanes during the summer and fall. Many large cities in Mexico are located in the Valley of Mexico or in adjacent valleys with altitudes generally above 2, m 6, ft. Many parts of Mexico, particularly the north, have a dry climate with sporadic rainfall while parts of the tropical lowlands in the south average more than 2, mm Mexico ranks fourth [] in the world in biodiversity and is one of the 17 megadiverse countries.

In [update] , Mexico had the second fastest rate of deforestation in the world, second only to Brazil. In Mexico, , square kilometres 65, sq mi are considered "Protected Natural Areas". These include 34 biosphere reserves unaltered ecosystems , 67 national parks , 4 natural monuments protected in perpetuity for their aesthetic, scientific or historical value , 26 areas of protected flora and fauna, 4 areas for natural resource protection conservation of soil, hydrological basins and forests and 17 sanctuaries zones rich in diverse species.

The discovery of the Americas brought to the rest of the world many widely used food crops and edible plants. Most of these names come from indigenous languages like Nahuatl. Because of its high biodiversity Mexico has also been a frequent site of bioprospecting by international research bodies. The United Mexican States are a federation whose government is representative , democratic and republican based on a presidential system according to the Constitution.

The constitution establishes three levels of government: the federal Union, the state governments and the municipal governments. According to the constitution, all constituent states of the federation must have a republican form of government composed of three branches: the executive, represented by a governor and an appointed cabinet, the legislative branch constituted by a unicameral congress [] [ original research?

They also have their own civil and judicial codes. The federal legislature is the bicameral Congress of the Union , composed of the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies. The Congress makes federal law , declares war, imposes taxes, approves the national budget and international treaties, and ratifies diplomatic appointments. The federal Congress, as well as the state legislatures, are elected by a system of parallel voting that includes plurality and proportional representation.

Of these, are elected by plurality vote in single-member districts the federal electoral districts and are elected by proportional representation with closed party lists [] for which the country is divided into five electoral constituencies. Of these, 64 senators two for each state and two for Mexico City are elected by plurality vote in pairs; 32 senators are the first minority or first-runner up one for each state and one for Mexico City , and 32 are elected by proportional representation from national closed party lists.

The executive is the President of the United Mexican States , who is the head of state and government , as well as the commander-in-chief of the Mexican military forces. The President also appoints the Cabinet and other officers. The President is responsible for executing and enforcing the law, and has the power to veto bills.

The highest organ of the judicial branch of government is the Supreme Court of Justice , the national supreme court , which has eleven judges appointed by the President and approved by the Senate. The Supreme Court of Justice interprets laws and judges cases of federal competency. Other institutions of the judiciary are the Federal Electoral Tribunal , collegiate, unitary and district tribunals, and the Council of the Federal Judiciary.

Three parties have historically been the dominant parties in Mexican politics: the Institutional Revolutionary Party PRI , a catch-all party [] and member of the Socialist International [] that was founded in to unite all the factions of the Mexican Revolution and held an almost hegemonic power in Mexican politics since then; the National Action Party PAN , a conservative party founded in and belonging to the Christian Democrat Organization of America ; [] and the Party of the Democratic Revolution PRD a left-wing party, [] founded in as the successor of the coalition of socialists and liberal parties.

PRD emerged after what has now been proven was a stolen election in , [] and has won numerous state and local elections since then. PAN won its first governorship in , and won the presidency in and Unlike many Latin American countries, the military in Mexico does not participate in politics and is under civilian control.

The foreign relations of Mexico are directed by the President of Mexico [] and managed through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In addition, since the s Mexico has sought a reform of the United Nations Security Council and its working methods [] with the support of Canada, Italy, Pakistan and other nine countries, which form a group informally called the Coffee Club. After the War of Independence , the relations of Mexico were focused primarily on the United States, its northern neighbor, largest trading partner , [] and the most powerful actor in hemispheric and world affairs.

President Donald Trump on either trade or migration, while maintaining neutrality on Venezuela and welcoming Chinese money. The Mexican military "provides a unique example of a military leadership's transforming itself into a civilian political elite, simultaneously transferring the basis of power from the army to a civilian state. The Mexican Armed Forces maintain significant infrastructure, including facilities for design, research, and testing of weapons, vehicles, aircraft, naval vessels, defense systems and electronics; [] [] military industry manufacturing centers for building such systems, and advanced naval dockyards that build heavy military vessels and advanced missile technologies.

In recent years, Mexico has improved its training techniques, military command and information structures and has taken steps to becoming more self-reliant in supplying its military by designing as well as manufacturing its own arms, [] missiles, [] aircraft, [] vehicles, heavy weaponry, electronics, [] defense systems, [] armor, heavy military industrial equipment and heavy naval vessels.

Mexico has the capabilities to manufacture nuclear weapons, but abandoned this possibility with the Treaty of Tlatelolco in and pledged to only use its nuclear technology for peaceful purposes. Historically, Mexico has remained neutral in international conflicts, [] with the exception of World War II.

However, in recent years some political parties have proposed an amendment of the Constitution to allow the Mexican Army, Air Force or Navy to collaborate with the United Nations in peacekeeping missions , or to provide military help to countries that officially ask for it. Public security is enacted at the three levels of government, each of which has different prerogatives and responsibilities. Local and state police departments are primarily in charge of law enforcement, whereas the Mexican Federal Police are in charge of specialized duties.

While the government generally respects the human rights of its citizens, serious abuses of power have been reported in security operations in the southern part of the country and in indigenous communities and poor urban neighborhoods. Despite the efforts of the authorities to fight crime and fraud, most Mexicans have low confidence in the police or the judicial system, and therefore, few crimes are actually reported by the citizens.

Drug cartels are a major concern in Mexico. Department of State warns its citizens to exercise increased caution when traveling in Mexico, issuing travel advisories on its website. This move was criticized by the opposition parties and the National Human Rights Commission for escalating the violence, [] but its effects have been positively evaluated by the US State Department's Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs as having obtained "unprecedented results" with "many important successes".

More than journalists and media workers have been killed or disappeared since , and most of these crimes remained unsolved, improperly investigated, and with few perpetrators arrested and convicted. The mass kidnapping of the 43 students in Iguala on 26 September triggered nationwide protests against the government's weak response to the disappearances and widespread corruption that gives free rein to criminal organizations.

The United Mexican States are a federation of 31 free and sovereign states, which form a union that exercises a degree of jurisdiction over Mexico City. Each state has its own constitution, congress , and a judiciary, and its citizens elect by direct voting a governor for a six-year term, and representatives to their respective unicameral state congresses for three-year terms. Mexico City is a special political division that belongs to the federation as a whole and not to a particular state.

The states are divided into municipalities , the smallest administrative political entity in the country, governed by a mayor or municipal president presidente municipal , elected by its residents by plurality.

GDP annual average growth was 2. After the slowdown of the country has recovered and has grown 4. Although multiple international organizations coincide and classify Mexico as an upper middle income country, or a middle class country [] [] Mexico's National Council for the Evaluation of Social Development Policy CONEVAL , which is the organization in charge to measure the country's poverty reports that a huge percentage of Mexico's population lives in poverty.

Said economists do point out that the percentage of people living in poverty according to Mexico's national poverty line is around 40 times higher than the one reported by the World Bank's international poverty line with said difference being the biggest in the world and ponder if it would not be better for countries in the situation of Mexico to adopt internationalized standards to measure poverty so the numbers obtained could be used to make accurate international comparisons.

Among the OECD countries, Mexico has the second-highest degree of economic disparity between the extremely poor and extremely rich, after Chile — although it has been falling over the last decade, being one of few countries in which this is the case. Nevertheless, according to Goldman Sachs , by Mexico will have the 5th largest economy in the world. The electronics industry of Mexico has grown enormously within the last decade. Mexico produces the most automobiles of any North American nation.

The remittances from Mexican citizens working in the United States account for 0. Mobile telephony has the advantage of reaching all areas at a lower cost, and the total number of mobile lines is almost two times that of landlines, with an estimation of 63 million lines. The Mexican satellite system is domestic and operates earth stations. There is also extensive microwave radio relay network and considerable use of fiber-optic and coaxial cable.

Energy production in Mexico is managed by the state-owned companies Federal Commission of Electricity and Pemex. This is the world's fourth most productive hydroelectric plant. Mexico is the country with the world's third largest solar potential. It is expected that in there will be 1,8 million square meters of installed solar thermal panels.

At an installed capacity of The National Autonomous University of Mexico was officially established in , [] and the university became one of the most important institutes of higher learning in Mexico. Most of the new research institutes were created within UNAM.

Twelve institutes were integrated into UNAM from to In , the Mexican chemist Mario J. Crutzen and F. Sherwood Rowland for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone. As of , Mexico was the 6th most visited country in the world and had the 15th highest income from tourism in the world which is also the highest in Latin America.

A smaller number also come from other Latin American countries. The coastlines of Mexico harbor many stretches of beaches that are frequented by sunbathers and other visitors. According to national law , the entirety of the coastlines are under federal ownership, that is, all beaches in the country are public.

Just offshore is the beach island of Isla Mujeres , and to the east is the Isla Holbox. In addition to its beaches, the town of Tulum is notable for its cliff-side Mayan ruins. On the Pacific coast is the notable tourist destination of Acapulco. Once the destination for the rich and famous, the beaches have become crowded and the shores are now home to many multi-story hotels and vendors.

Acapulco is home to renowned cliff divers: trained divers who leap from the side of a vertical cliff into the surf below. At the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula is the resort town of Cabo San Lucas , a town noted for its beaches and marlin fishing. The roadway network in Mexico is extensive and all areas in the country are covered by it.

Starting in the late nineteenth century, Mexico was one of the first Latin American countries to promote railway development, [] and the network covers 30, km 19, mi. Among the achievements is a significant increase in access to piped water supply in urban areas In addition to on-going investments to expand access, the government has embarked on a large investment program to improve wastewater treatment.

Throughout the 19th century, the population of Mexico had barely doubled. This trend continued during the first two decades of the 20th century, and even in the census there was a loss of about 1 million inhabitants. The phenomenon can be explained because during the decade from to the Mexican Revolution took place.

The Mexican population doubled in twenty years, and at that rate it was expected that by the year there would be million Mexicans. Life expectancy went from 36 years in to 72 years in the year Even though Mexico is a very ethnically diverse country, research about ethnicity has largely been a forgotten field, in consequence of the post-revolutionary efforts of Mexico's government to unify all non-indigenous Mexicans under a single ethnic identity that of the "Mestizo".

As a result, since the only explicit ethnic classification that has been included in Mexican censuses has been that of "Indigenous peoples". As of [update] , it is estimated that 1. Regardless of ethnicity, the majority of Mexicans are united under the same national identity. The total percentage of Mexico's indigenous peoples tends to vary depending on the criteria used by the government on its censuses: it is 6.

Similarly to Mestizo and indigenous peoples, estimates of the percentage of European-descended Mexicans vary considerably depending of the criteria used: recent nationwide field surveys that account for different phenotypical traits hair color, skin color etc. The Afro-Mexican population 2,, individuals as of [update] [1] [] is an ethnic group made up of descendants of Colonial-era slaves and recent immigrants of sub-Saharan African descent.

Mexico had an active slave trade during the colonial period, and some , Africans were taken there, primarily in the 17th century. The creation of a national Mexican identity, especially after the Mexican Revolution, emphasized Mexico's indigenous and European past; it passively eliminated the African ancestors and contributions.

Evidence of this long history of intermarriage with Mestizo and indigenous Mexicans is also expressed in the fact that in the inter-census, It was also reported that 7. During the early 20th century, a substantial number of Arabs mostly Christians [] began arriving from the crumbling Ottoman Empire. The largest group were the Lebanese and an estimated , Mexicans have some Lebanese ancestry.

During the colonial era Asians were termed Chino regardless of ethnicity , and arrived as merchants, artisans and slaves. In the early s, around , Mexicans lived abroad, which increased sevenfold by the s to 4. Spanish is the de facto national language spoken by the vast majority of the population, making Mexico the world's most populous Hispanophone country.

The letters b and v have the same pronunciation as well. The federal government officially recognizes sixty-eight linguistic groups and varieties of indigenous languages. Aside from indigenous languages, there are several minority languages spoken in Mexico due to international migration such as Low German by the 80,strong Menonite population , primarily settled in the northern states, fuelled by the tolerance of the federal government towards this community by allowing them to set their own educational system compatible with their customs and traditions.

It is estimated that nearly 24 million, or around a fifth of the population, study the language through public schools, private institutions or self-access channels. The 20 largest cities in Mexico as of the census. The 97,, [1] Catholics of Mexico constitute in absolute terms the second largest Catholic community in the world, after Brazil 's.

The denominations Pentecostal also have an important presence, especially in the cities of the border and in the indigenous communities. As of , Pentecostal churches together have more than 1. The situation changes when the different Pentecostal denominations are considered as separate entities. The third-largest Christian group is the Jehovah's Witnesses , which totals more than 1 million adherents. In the same census The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , whose members are known as Mormons , reported , members, [] though the church claimed in to have over one million registered members.

Migratory phenomena have led to the spread of different aspects of Christianity, including branches Protestants , Eastern Catholic Churches and Eastern Orthodox Church. According to Jacobo Grinberg in texts edited by the National Autonomous University of Mexico , the survival of magic-religious rituals of the old indigenous groups is remarkable, not only in the current indigenous population but also in the mestizo and white population that make up the Mexican rural and urban society.

There is often a syncretism between shamanism and Catholic traditions. Even though Mexico was also a recipient of black slaves from Africa in the 16th century, the apogee of these cults is relatively new. One of the most exemplary cases of popular religiosity is the cult of Holy Dead Santa Muerte.

The Catholic hierarchy insists on describing it as a satanic cult. However, most of the people who profess this cult declare themselves to be Catholic believers, and consider that there is no contradiction between the tributes they offer to the Christ Child and the adoration of God. Other examples are the representations of the Passion of Christ and the celebration of Day of the Dead , which take place within the framework of the Catholic Christian imaginary, but under a very particular reinterpretation of its protagonists.

In certain regions, the profession of a creed other than the Catholic is seen as a threat to community unity. It is argued that the Catholic religion is part of the ethnic identity, and that the Protestants are not willing to participate in the traditional customs and practices the tequio or community work, participation in the festivities and similar issues.

The refusal of the Protestants is because their religious beliefs do not allow them to participate in the cult of images. In extreme cases, tension between Catholics and Protestants has led to the expulsion or even murder of Protestants in several villages. A similar argument was presented by a committee of anthropologists to request the government of the Republic to expel the Summer Linguistic Institute SIL , in the year , which was accused of promoting the division of indigenous peoples by translating the Bible into vernacular languages and evangelizing in a Protestant creed that threatened the integrity of popular cultures.

The Mexican government paid attention to the call of the anthropologists and canceled the agreement that had held with the SIL. Since the early s, Mexico entered a transitional stage in the health of its population and some indicators such as mortality patterns are identical to those found in highly developed countries like Germany or Japan. Medical training is done mostly at public universities with much specializations done in vocational or internship settings.

Some public universities in Mexico, such as the University of Guadalajara , have signed agreements with the U. Health care costs in private institutions and prescription drugs in Mexico are on average lower than that of its North American economic partners. Nowadays, Mexico's literacy rate is high, at After it comes the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education as the best private school in Mexico and th worldwide in Until the twentieth century, Mexico was an overwhelmingly rural country, with rural women's status defined within the context of the family and local community.

With urbanization beginning in the sixteenth century, following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire , cities have provided economic and social opportunities not possible within rural villages. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, women including middle-class women began working outside the home in offices and factories, and the gained access to education.

Mexico is among the countries that treat particular murders of women as femicide. This is the first new and major movement with which his presidency has had to deal. On International Women's Day 8 March in , women staged a massive demonstration in Mexico City with some 80, participants. On Monday, 9 March , the second day of action was marked by the absence of women at work, in class, shopping and other public activities.

Mexican culture reflects the complexity of the country's history through the blending of indigenous cultures and the culture of Spain , imparted during Spain's year colonial rule of Mexico. Exogenous cultural elements have been incorporated into Mexican culture as time has passed.

The Porfirian era el Porfiriato , in the last quarter of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, was marked by economic progress and peace. Since that time, as accentuated during the Mexican Revolution , cultural identity has had its foundation in the mestizaje , of which the indigenous i. Amerindian element is the core. Painting is one of the oldest arts in Mexico. Cave painting in Mexican territory is about years old and has been found in the caves of the Baja California Peninsula.

Pre-Columbian Mexico is present in buildings and caves, in Aztec codices , in ceramics , in garments, etc. Mural painting with religious themes had an important flowering during the 16th century; the same in religious constructions as in houses of lineage; such is the case of the convents of Acolman , Actopan , Huejotzingo , Tecamachalco and Zinacantepec. Most art in the colonial era was religious, but starting in the late seventeenth century and most prominently in the eighteenth century, secular portraits and casta painting appeared.

Nineteenth-century painting had a marked romantic influence; landscapes and portraits were the greatest expressions of this era. Hermenegildo Bustos is one of the most appreciated painters of the historiography of Mexican art. The Oaxacan School quickly gained fame and prestige, diffusion of ancestral and modern culture. Freedom of design is observed in relation to the color and texture of the canvases and murals as a period of transition between the 20th century and the 21st century.

Diego Rivera, the most well-known figure of Mexican muralism , painted the Man at the Crossroads at the Rockefeller Center in New York City, a huge mural that was destroyed by the Rockefellers the next year because of the inclusion of a portrait of Russian communist leader Lenin. Some of the most outstanding painters in the late 20th century and early 21st century: Francisco Toledo was a Mexican Zapotec painter, sculptor, and graphic artist.

In a career that spanned seven decades, Toledo produced thousands of works of art and became widely regarded as one of Mexico's most important contemporary artists. Gilberto Aceves Navarro is also considered an important contemporary artist. Throughout history several prominent painters of different nationalities have expressed in their works the face of Mexico. Sculpture was an integral part of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilizations, Mayans , Olmecs , Toltecs , Mixtecs , Aztecs , and others, usually religious in nature.

From the Spanish conquest in , civil and religious sculpture was created by indigenous artists, with guidance from Spaniards, so some pre-Columbian features are evident. Since the 17th century, white and mestizo sculptors have created works with a marked influence of European classicism. After independence in , sculpture was influenced by Romanticism, which tended to break the strict norms and models of classicism, while it pursued ideas influenced by realism and nationalism. Religious sculpture was reduced to a sporadic imagery, while the secular sculpture continued in portraits and monumental art of a civic nature.

Between and the predominant themes were, successively: religious images, biblical scenes, allegories to the symbols of the independence insurgency, scenes and personages of pre-Columbian history, and busts of the old aristocracy, of the nascent bourgeoisie and commanders of the pre-revolution.

The presence of the humans in the Mexican territory has left important archaeological findings of great importance for the explanation of the habitat of primitive man and contemporary man. The Mesoamerican civilizations managed to have great stylistic development and proportion on the human and urban scale, the form was evolving from simplicity to aesthetic complexity; in the north of the country the adobe and stone architecture is manifested, the multifamily housing as we can see in Casas Grandes ; and the troglodyte dwelling in caves of the Sierra Madre Occidental.

Mesoamerican architecture is noted for its pyramids which are the largest such structures outside of Ancient Egypt. Spanish Colonial architecture is marked by the contrast between the simple, solid construction demanded by the new environment and the Baroque ornamentation exported from Spain. Mexico, as the center of New Spain has some of the most renowned buildings built in this style. With the arrival of the Spaniards, architectural theories of the Greco-Roman order with Arab influences were introduced.

Due to the process of evangelization , when the first monastic temples and monasteries were built, their own models were projected, such as the mendicant monasteries , unique in their type in architecture. The interaction between Spaniards and natives gave rise to artistic styles such as the so-called tequitqui from Nahuatl : worker.

Years later the baroque and mannerism were imposed in large cathedrals and civil buildings, while rural areas are built haciendas or stately farms with Mozarabic tendencies. Romanticists from a past seen through archeology show images of medieval Europe, Islamic and pre-Columbian Mexico in the form of architectural elements in the construction of international exhibition pavilions looking for an identity typical of the national culture.

The art nouveau , and the art deco were styles introduced into the design of the Palacio de Bellas Artes to mark the identity of the Mexican nation with Greek-Roman and pre-Columbian symbols. The emergence of the new Mexican architecture was born as a formal order of the policies of a nationalist state that sought modernity and the differentiation of other nations. The development of a Mexican modernist architecture was perhaps mostly fully manifested in the mids construction of the Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City , the main campus of the National Autonomous University of Mexico.

Juan O'Gorman was one of the first environmental architects in Mexico, developing the "organic" theory, trying to integrate the building with the landscape within the same approaches of Frank Lloyd Wright. The Jalisco School was a proposal of those socio-political movements that the country demanded. He won the Pritzker Prize , the highest award in architecture. Mexican architecture is a cultural phenomenon born of the ideology of nationalist governments of the 20th century, which was shaping the identity image by its colorful and variegated ornamental elements inherited from ancestral cultures, classical and monumental forms and, subsequently, the incorporation of modernism and cutting-edge international trends.

Mexico has been photographed since the nineteenth century, when the technology was first developed. The government hired Guillermo Kahlo father of painter Frida Kahlo to create photographic images of Mexico's new industrial structures as well as its pre-Columbian and colonial past.

Photographer Hugo Brehme specialized in images of "picturesque" Mexico, with images of Mexican places and often rural people. During the Mexican Revolution, photographers chronicled the conflict, usually in the aftermath of a battle, since large and heavy equipment did not permit action shots. Mexican literature has its antecedents in the literature of the indigenous settlements of Mesoamerica.

Poetry had a rich cultural tradition in pre-Columbian Mexico, being divided into two broad categories—secular and religious. Aztec poetry was sung, chanted, or spoken, often to the accompaniment of a drum or a harp. While Tenochtitlan was the political capital, Texcoco was the cultural center; the Texcocan language was considered the most melodious and refined.

The best well-known pre-Columbian poet is Nezahualcoyotl. Literature during the 16th century consisted largely of histories of Spanish conquests, and most of the writers at this time were from Spain. Spanish-born poet Bernardo de Balbuena extolled the virtues of Mexico in Grandeza mexicana Mexican grandeur ; Francisco de Terrazas was the first Mexican-born poet to attain renown.

Sor Juana was famous in her own time, called the "Ten Muse. Several Jesuit humanists wrote at this time, and they were among the first to call for independence from Spain. Mexican films from the Golden Age in the s and s are the greatest examples of Latin American cinema, with a huge industry comparable to the Hollywood of those years.

Mexican films were exported and exhibited in all of Latin America and Europe. Numerous Mexican actors have achieved recognition as Hollywood stars. There are three major television companies in Mexico that own the primary networks and broadcast covering all nation, Televisa , TV Azteca and Imagen Television. Televisa is also the largest producer of Spanish-language content in the world and also the world's largest Spanish-language media network.

Grupo Multimedios is another media conglomerate with Spanish-language broadcasting in Mexico, Spain, and the United States. In , Mexico presented the candidature of its gastronomy for World Heritage Site of UNESCO, being the first occasion in which a country had presented its gastronomic tradition for this purpose.

The origin of the current Mexican cuisine is established during the Spanish colonial era, a mixture of the foods of Spain with native indigenous ingredients. Other Indigenous products are many beans. Similarly, some cooking techniques used today are inherited from pre-Columbian peoples, such as the nixtamalization of corn, the cooking of food in ovens at ground level, grinding in molcajete and metate.

With the Spaniards came the pork, beef and chicken meats; peppercorn , sugar, milk and all its derivatives, wheat and rice, citrus fruits and another constellation of ingredients that are part of the daily diet of Mexicans. From this meeting of millennia old two culinary traditions, were born pozole , mole sauce , barbacoa and tamale is in its current forms, the chocolate , a large range of breads , tacos , and the broad repertoire of Mexican street foods.

Mexico has a long tradition of classical music, as far back as the 16th century, when it was a Spanish colony. Mexican society enjoys a vast array of music genres, showing the diversity of Mexican culture. Mexico has the largest media industry in Latin America, producing Mexican artists who are famous in Central and South America and parts of the United States and Europe, especially Spain. Elements from the Indigenous peoples of Mexico music have deeply influenced Mexico's music at large, distinguishing it from European and Asian traditions.

The Bolero , Cha-cha-cha and Mambo invade the radio of the 40s and 50s mimicking the idiosyncrasy of the Mexican. In American vocalist of Mexican heritage Andy Russell , relocated to Mexico where he became a star of radio, records and nightclubs, specializing in traditional pop and Latin music.

But since the s from other Caribbean countries and the United States arrives the Salsa music. Currently ranchera music accompanied with mariachi continues to have important interpreters, composers who have crossed national borders, among the singers of the moment most recognized for their career and popularity are Vicente Fernandez , Aida Cuevas and Pepe Aguilar.

Grupera music became definitely popular in the s to collectively refer to what is now referred to as reginal Mexican music. More recent American creations Jazz , techno , and house music have cross over. Mexico's most popular sport is association football. It is commonly believed that football was introduced in Mexico by Cornish miners at the end of the 19th century. By a five-team league had emerged with a strong British influence. The Mexican professional baseball league is named the Liga Mexicana de Beisbol.

While usually not as strong as the United States, the Caribbean countries and Japan, Mexico has nonetheless achieved several international baseball titles. Mexico has had several players signed by Major League teams, the most famous of them being Dodgers pitcher Fernando Valenzuela.

In , Mexico's basketball team won the Americas Basketball Championship and qualified for the Basketball World Cup where it reached the playoffs. Bullfighting Spanish: corrida de toros came to Mexico years ago with the arrival of the Spanish. Despite efforts by animal rights activists to outlaw it, bullfighting remains a popular sport in the country, and almost all large cities have bullrings.

Mexico is an international power in professional boxing. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Country in North America. This article is about the federal republic in North America. For other uses, see Mexico disambiguation. Estados Unidos Mexicanos Spanish. None at federal level [b]. Main article: Name of Mexico. Main article: History of Mexico. Main articles: Pre-Columbian Mexico and Mesoamerican chronology.

Further information: Spanish conquest of Mexico. Main article: New Spain. Main article: Mexican War of Independence. Further information: Mexican Revolution. Further information: Institutional Revolutionary Party. Main article: Geography of Mexico. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Climate of Mexico. Main article: Federal government of Mexico. Main article: Politics of Mexico. Main article: Foreign relations of Mexico. Main article: Mexican Armed Forces. See also: Military history of Mexico. Main article: Law enforcement in Mexico. Gulf of Mexico. Mexico City. Baja California.

Baja California Sur. Quintana Roo. Main article: Economy of Mexico. See also: Economic history of Mexico. Main article: Telecommunications in Mexico. See also: Electricity sector in Mexico. Main article: History of science and technology in Mexico. Main article: Tourism in Mexico. Main article: Transportation in Mexico. Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Mexico.

Main article: Demographics of Mexico. Main article: Emigration from Mexico. See also: Immigration to Mexico. Main article: Languages of Mexico. Main articles: Metropolitan areas of Mexico and List of cities in Mexico. Largest cities or towns in Mexico Census. See also: Religion in Mexico. Religion in Mexico census [1] [] Roman Catholicism. Main article: Healthcare in Mexico. Main article: Education in Mexico. Main article: Women in Mexico. Main article: Culture of Mexico.

Main article: Mexican art. Main article: Sculpture in Mexico. Main article: Architecture of Mexico. Main articles: Mexican literature and Mesoamerican literature. Main article: Cinema of Mexico. Further information: Mexican television and List of newspapers in Mexico.

Main article: Mexican cuisine. See also: Mexican wine. Main article: Music of Mexico. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Sport in Mexico. Retrieved 26 January Archived from the original PDF on 11 May Retrieved 14 August Oxford University Press.

ISBN Retrieved 11 October International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 19 October Retrieved 25 February United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 15 December Retrieved 7 November Retrieved 18 July The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. El Financiero. Retrieved 15 July City Population.

Retrieved 13 July In Werner, Michael ed. Concise Encyclopedia of Mexico. The History Channel. The Washington Post. Vincent The American Political Science Review. JSTOR US Department of State. Retrieved 17 July Congressional Research Service. The University of Manchester. Archived from the original on 25 May Retrieved 11 April Review of International Studies.

S2CID ProQuest Retrieved 7 May Archived from the original on 24 April Archived from the original on 16 August Retrieved 30 May Globalization and the Transformation of Foreign Economic Policy. Ashgate Publishing. The Limits of Convergence. Princeton University Press. Geography, An Integrated Approach 3rd ed. Nelson Thornes. Gregory Mankiw Principles of Economics 4th ed. Vision of Humanity. June Archived from the original PDF on 27 August Retrieved 4 June Council on Foreign Relations.

Retrieved 19 July Retrieved 25 May Mexican biodiversity. Retrieved 8 January Native American Placenames of the United States. University of Oklahoma Press. Archived from the original on 1 November Retrieved 4 November Archived from the original on 23 July Webster MacLachlan 13 April Imperialism and the Origins of Mexican Culture.

Harvard University Press. The Olmecs: America's First Civilization. Retrieved 14 July Writing Systems: A Linguistic Introduction. Stanford University Press. Annual Review of Anthropology. OCLC Ancient Civilizations World. Mexico: from the Olmecs to the Aztecs 5th edition, revised and enlarged ed.

Natural History. Retrieved 16 December UNM Press. Five Letterss to the Emperor. Bayard Morris. New York: W. True History of the Conquest of Mexico. Abridge version translated by J. Cohen, The Conquest of New Spain. London: Penguin Books Norman: Norman: University of Oklahoma Press Douglass K.

El Paso: Texas Western Press The Early History of Greater Mexico. Prentice Hall. Boston: Beacon Press Berkeley: University of California Press Smallpox in the New World. Marshall Cavendish. BBC News History. Retrieved 30 December University of California Press. National Geographic. IV, "Inquisition" in Encyclopedia of Mexico. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn , pp. Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture , vol. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons University of Minnesota.

Yale University Press. Retrieved 8 October Class and Race Formation in North America. University of Toronto Press. Retrieved 13 December Archived from the original PDF on 13 November Madison, Wis. Cambridge University Press. New York: Cambridge University Press Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn , p. Retrieved 9 February The Diplomat. Retrieved 7 February Mexico City, the authors [Peter Gordon, Juan Jose Morales] note, was the 'first world city,' the precursor to London, New York, and Hong Kong, where 'Asia, Europe, and the Americas all met, and where people intermingled and exchanged everything from genes to textiles'.

Cuauhtemoc, the last Aztec emperor, was tortured. He is now a Mexican hero. Spain now owned Mexico. For less then years Mexico was a Spanish colony. That is why the language of Mexico is Spanish. The Indians were forced to accept the Roman Catholic religion.

They Indians mixed the Roman Catholic religion with their own religion. In , a man named Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla , a priest, started a fight for the independence of Mexico. He had many Indians and Mestizos who fought against Spain for him. The Spanish king taxed the people of Mexico for their revolt. Most of the people did not want independence. The Mexicans later won their independence when there were more Mexican fighters then Spanish.

In , Mexico became independent. In , Mexico became a republic. In the year , Mexico ha Continue reading this essay Continue reading. Toggle navigation MegaEssays. Saved Essays. Topics in Paper. Example Essays. Continue reading this essay Continue reading Page 1 of 4. Next Page.


The Zapotecas flattened a mountain top and built a temple. They also wrote the first written records in the region. The Aztecs built the greatest civilization in the years They had a capital named Tenochtitlan. Tenochtitlan is now Mexico City. The Aztecs had a powerful emperor named Montezuma II.

He then marched towards Tenochtitlan and seized Montezuma. The Aztecs revolted and forced the Spaniards out of Tenochtitlan. Two years later, Cortes returned to the city and conquered Tenochtitlan. Cuauhtemoc, the last Aztec emperor, was tortured. He is now a Mexican hero. Spain now owned Mexico. For less then years Mexico was a Spanish colony. That is why the language of Mexico is Spanish. The Indians were forced to accept the Roman Catholic religion.

They Indians mixed the Roman Catholic religion with their own religion. In , a man named Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla , a priest, started a fight for the independence of Mexico. He had many Indians and Mestizos who fought against Spain for him. The Spanish king taxed the people of Mexico for their revolt. Most of the people did not want independence. The Mexicans later won their independence when there were more Mexican fighters then Spanish.

In , Mexico became independent. If I was to describe Mexico in one word, I would describe it as colourful, the people, the music, the food, the history, the memories. The life lived there is all colourful and great. Mexico has a lot of history and culture that is very respected by everyone.

Mexico is a very welcoming country with very beautiful and kind people that will all treat you like family. Everyone is very lovely and we try to get together every weekend with all of our friends and family. We have a lot of amazing food and my favourite is tacos , but we have lots of foods that taste amazing like tamales , c onchas sweet bread , frijoles and many more! I miss all of this from Mexico and I wish I could have it all now.

In Mexico, we have amazing music that if you ever hear it you would instantly recognise it, the music is lovely! Fabiana Moreno St. John Clerke is a year-old high school student who lives in Cape Town. She grew up in Mexico and South Africa and is about to move to England with her parents and two younger sisters.

Spanish is her first language, while English is her second language. John Clerke, Kobby Dagan, Shutterstock. Competition Our 20 Reunion facts will provide insights about geography, people, economy, animals and food of this magnificent French island in the Indian Ocean.

It is bordered to the north by the United States ; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean ; to the southeast by GuatemalaBelizeand the Caribbean Sea ; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico.

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Best dissertation conclusion editing sites ca Essay Sample Check Writing Quality. Interest rates soared, the peso devalued, essay on mexico in spanish unable to pay loans, the government defaulted on its debt. In order to do that, the Constitution of was amended in several important ways. Archived from the original on 17 April Archived from the original PDF on 14 January The federal legislature is the bicameral Congress of the Unioncomposed of the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies. Religious sculpture was reduced to a sporadic imagery, while the secular sculpture continued in portraits and monumental art of a civic nature.
Buying essays uk Retrieved 4 April Each state has its good gcse english essays constitution, congressand a judiciary, and its citizens elect by direct voting a governor for a six-year term, and representatives to their respective unicameral state congresses for three-year terms. In the pope had granted sweeping powers to the Spanish crown, with the proviso that the crown spread Christianity in its new realms. The Catholic Church played an important role in spreading Christianity and the Spanish language, while also preserving some indigenous elements. Archived from the original on 16 February While usually not as strong as the United States, the Caribbean countries and Japan, Mexico has nonetheless achieved several international baseball titles. Main article: Healthcare in Mexico.
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Essay on mexico in spanish University of Minnesota Population Center. This is the first new and major movement with which his presidency has had to deal. From its farthest land points, Mexico is a little over 2, mi 3, km in length. Historically, Mexico has remained neutral in international conflicts, [] with the exception of World War II. The executive is the President of the United Mexican Stateswho is the head of state and governmentas well as the commander-in-chief of the Mexican military forces. Archived from the original PDF on 3 October

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I wanted nobody to recognize a foreigner in me when I would visit Spain. I had an aim and I was moving towards it. Soon after my hobby was transformed into a real love, it was evident that it had to become my profession. I knew for sure: I had to dedicate my life to Spanish.

I wanted to be a philologist or something like that and know the language better than its bearers. I had spent so much time on studying it that it seemed impossible to find something interesting and new in this language.

Once I was given a surprise: it was a so long-awaited ticket to Mexico. Frankly speaking, it was not too crucially for me where to go. I just wanted to visit any Spanish-speaking country and Mexico was singled out among all the other variants. Mexico with its population was considered to be the biggest Spanish-speaking country, though people spoke not Spanish in its pure form here. Mexicans had their own kind of dialect and it differed from the traditional form of language so much, that I thought I would have fallen unconscious when I heard it first.

It was a real shock for me! I listened to the Mexicans in attempt to understand at least a word, though I heard absolutely unknown words , which resembled the traditional Spanish just a little. Maybe it was pronunciation that tied these two languages together. All the other differences were incomparable.

I understood that I knew not everything about Spanish and I tried to traverse this problem in my Mexican slang essay. Slang was really one of the most interesting topics for such a curious philologist like me and I caught at the idea to investigate it deeper. When I came back home, I had a large vocabulary of slang words and a feeling that I became much closer to my dream of becoming a super experienced linguist.

My essay Mexican slang was finished soon after I got home. I had a lot of interesting info on this subject and I wanted to share it with everybody so much that I started writing my essay right on the plane. Good ideas started appearing one by one and they did it so fast that I could hardly remember them.

I was writing so passionately that I stopped noticing the time. I made all the necessary conclusions at home and looked happily at my essay. It was extra vivid and contained a lot of perfect examples, which were known to nobody but me. The most highly dense populated cities in Mexico will mostly be found. First time to Mexico One of the most common places to tour is Mexico. Many tourists are very attracted to Mexico due to the culture, history and main attractions. Although Mexico is a very poor country everyone whom inhabits Mexico works very hard every day to be able to live.

I was lucky enough to have the opportunity to travel to Mexico. I am from Veracruz. The combination of beliefs and customs creates the unique Mexican culture. The overwhelming majority of Mexicans today speak Spanish. According to the CIA, Spanish is spoken by About 6 percent of the. This immigration that happens not only effects the U. However, after this period of growth, what followed was decades of debt. The Spaniards made what we now know as Mexico into a racially segregated country, where the Europeans had priority in the casta.

The white Caudillos were at the top of the pyramid, while the middle class, and then the Mexican Campesinos and the Mestizos were on the bottom. Each group of people worked against each other to try and distinguish themselves from another group. After Mexico gained its independence and the colonials went back to Spain, Mexico had to find a way to function as a country on. Since , Mexico has rapidly climbed the list of potential trouble spots for U. Exportation of drugs is a huge problem on top of the cartel violence the drugs were still getting out of Mexico into the U.

The strategy narcotics analyst showed that 90 percent of cocaine was smuggled through Mexico alone. The Congressional Research Report concluded that for almost four decades Mexico has been among the most important producers and suppliers of heroin, marijuana. Bringing forth Mexico into the union would only benefit the new country both globally and locally. Mexico has too much to offer to ignore the positive consequences that unification brings forth.

Endless possibilities for change for the. Given its geographic location, Mexico has long been used as a staging and transshipment point for narcotics and contraband between Latin America and U. Mexican bootleggers supplied alcohol to the United States gangsters throughout the duration of the Prohibition in the United States,[94] and the onset of illegal drug trade with the U.

This law was considered to have. Showing how the art of the ancient people are expressed. Located in Mexico City a lot can be find influencing their art, shops, renowned museums and very good tasty restaurants to modern life, as well showing their ancient art of the ancient civilizations, and ancient culture.