However, the ideology was highly criticized and even scorned by some. The statesman and historian Ouyang Xiu — called the religion a "curse" that could only be remedied by uprooting it from Chinese culture and replacing it with Confucian discourse.
The Christian sect of Nestorianism , which had entered China in the Tang era, would also be revived in China under Mongol rule. Sumptuary laws regulated the food that one consumed and the clothes that one wore according to status and social class. Clothing was made of hemp or cotton cloths, restricted to a color standard of black and white.
Trousers were the acceptable attire for peasants, soldiers, artisans, and merchants, although wealthy merchants might choose to wear more ornate clothing and male blouses that came down below the waist. Acceptable apparel for scholar-officials was rigidly defined by the social ranking system. However, as time went on this rule of rank-graded apparel for officials was not as strictly enforced.
Each official was able to display his awarded status by wearing different-colored traditional silken robes that hung to the ground around his feet, specific types of headgear, and even specific styles of girdles that displayed his graded-rank of officialdom. Women wore long dresses, blouses that came down to the knee, skirts, and jackets with long or short sleeves, while women from wealthy families could wear purple scarves around their shoulders.
The main difference in women's apparel from that of men was that it was fastened on the left, not on the right. The main food staples in the diet of the lower classes remained rice, pork , and salted fish. Champa rice was drought-resistant and able to grow fast enough to offer two harvests a year instead of one.
Song restaurant and tavern menus are recorded. They list entrees for feasts, banquets, festivals, and carnivals. They reveal a diverse and lavish diet for those of the upper class. They could choose from a wide variety of meats and seafood, including shrimp, geese, duck, mussel, shellfish, fallow deer , hare, partridge, pheasant, francolin, quail, fox, badger, clam, crab, and many others.
Beef was rarely consumed since the bull was a valuable draft animal, and dog meat was absent from the diet of the wealthy, although the poor could choose to eat dog meat if necessary yet it was not part of their regular diet. The Song dynasty had one of the most prosperous and advanced economies in the medieval world. Song Chinese invested their funds in joint stock companies and in multiple sailing vessels at a time when monetary gain was assured from the vigorous overseas trade and domestic trade along the Grand Canal and Yangtze River.
The iron industry was pursued by both private entrepreneurs who owned their own smelters as well as government-supervised smelting facilities. The iron trade within China was advanced by the construction of new canals , facilitating the flow of iron products from production centres to the large market in the capital city. The annual output of minted copper currency in reached roughly six billion coins.
The economic power of Song China heavily influenced foreign economies abroad. The Moroccan geographer al-Idrisi wrote in of the prowess of Chinese merchant ships in the Indian Ocean and of their annual voyages that brought iron, swords, silk, velvet, porcelain, and various textiles to places such as Aden Yemen , the Indus River , and the Euphrates in modern-day Iraq. For example, many West Asian and Central Asian Muslims went to China to trade, becoming a preeminent force in the import and export industry, while some were even appointed as officers supervising economic affairs.
In order to reduce the risk of losing money on maritime trade missions abroad, wrote historians Ebrey, Walthall, and Palais:. One observer thought eagerness to invest in overseas trade was leading to an outflow of copper cash.
He wrote, 'People along the coast are on intimate terms with the merchants who engage in overseas trade, either because they are fellow-countrymen or personal acquaintances They invest from ten to a hundred strings of cash, and regularly make profits of several hundred percent'.
Advancements in weapons technology enhanced by gunpowder, including the evolution of the early flamethrower , explosive grenade , firearm , cannon , and land mine , enabled the Song Chinese to ward off their militant enemies until the Song's ultimate collapse in the late 13th century. As early as the Han dynasty , when the state needed to accurately measure distances traveled throughout the empire, the Chinese relied on a mechanical odometer. Polymath figures such as the scientists and statesmen Shen Kuo — and Su Song — embodied advancements in all fields of study, including botany , zoology , geology , mineralogy , metallurgy , mechanics , magnetics , meteorology , horology , astronomy , pharmaceutical medicine , archeology , mathematics , cartography , optics , art criticism , hydraulics , and many other fields.
Shen Kuo was the first to discern magnetic declination of true north while experimenting with a compass. Su Song was best known for his horology treatise written in , which described and illustrated in great detail his hydraulic -powered, 12 m 39 ft tall astronomical clock tower built in Kaifeng. The clock tower featured large astronomical instruments of the armillary sphere and celestial globe , both driven by an early intermittently working escapement mechanism similarly to the western verge escapement of true mechanical clocks appeared in medieval clockworks , derived from ancient clockworks of classical times.
These star charts feature a cylindrical projection similar to Mercator projection , the latter being a cartographic innovation of Gerardus Mercator in Moreover, the Soochow Astronomical Chart on Chinese planispheres was prepared in for instructing the crown prince on astronomical findings. The planispheres were engraved in stone several decades later. There were many notable improvements to Chinese mathematics during the Song era.
Mathematician Yang Hui 's book provided the earliest Chinese illustration of Pascal's triangle , although it had earlier been described by Jia Xian in around Qin's major work was the Mathematical Treatise in Nine Sections published in Geometry was essential to surveying and cartography. The earliest extant Chinese maps date to the 4th century BCE,  yet it was not until the time of Pei Xiu — that topographical elevation , a formal rectangular grid system, and use of a standard graduated scale of distances was applied to terrain maps.
The innovation of movable type printing was made by the artisan Bi Sheng — , first described by the scientist and statesman Shen Kuo in his Dream Pool Essays of The advancement of printing deeply affected education and the scholar-official class, since more books could be made faster while mass-produced, printed books were cheaper in comparison to laborious handwritten copies.
The movable type invented by Bi Sheng was ultimately trumped by the use of woodblock printing due to the limitations of the enormous Chinese character writing system, yet movable type printing continued to be used and was improved in later periods. The Yuan dynasty scholar-official Wang Zhen fl. This includes the printing of sixty-six copies of a 5, volume long encyclopedia in , the Gujin Tushu Jicheng Complete Collection of Illustrations and Writings from the Earliest to Current Times , which necessitated the crafting of , movable type characters cast in bronze.
The most important nautical innovation of the Song period seems to have been the introduction of the magnetic mariner's compass , which permitted accurate navigation on the open sea regardless of the weather. There were other considerable advancements in hydraulic engineering and nautical technology during the Song dynasty. The 10th-century invention of the pound lock for canal systems allowed different water levels to be raised and lowered for separated segments of a canal, which significantly aided the safety of canal traffic and allowed for larger barges.
In the Song period, the Chinese devised a way to mechanically raise and lower rudders in order for ships to travel in a wider range of water depths. Architecture during the Song period reached new heights of sophistication. Authors such as Yu Hao and Shen Kuo wrote books outlining the field of architectural layouts, craftsmanship, and structural engineering in the 10th and 11th centuries, respectively.
Shen Kuo preserved the written dialogues of Yu Hao when describing technical issues such as slanting struts built into pagoda towers for diagonal wind bracing. These illustrations displayed various applications of corbel brackets, cantilever arms, mortise and tenon work of tie beams and cross beams, and diagrams showing the various building types of halls in graded sizes.
Grandiose building projects were supported by the government, including the erection of towering Buddhist Chinese pagodas and the construction of enormous bridges wood or stone, trestle or segmental arch bridge. Many of the pagoda towers built during the Song period were erected at heights that exceeded ten stories. Some of the most famous are the Iron Pagoda built in during the Northern Song and the Liuhe Pagoda built in during the Southern Song, although there were many others.
The tallest is the Liaodi Pagoda of Hebei built in , towering 84 m ft in total height. Some of the bridges reached lengths of 1, m 4, ft , with many being wide enough to allow two lanes of cart traffic simultaneously over a waterway or ravine. The professions of the architect, craftsman, carpenter, and structural engineer were not seen as professionally equal to that of a Confucian scholar-official.
Architectural knowledge had been passed down orally for thousands of years in China, in many cases from a father craftsman to his son. Structural engineering and architecture schools were known to have existed during the Song period; one prestigious engineering school was headed by the renowned bridge-builder Cai Xiang — in medieval Fujian province. Besides existing buildings and technical literature of building manuals, Song dynasty artwork portraying cityscapes and other buildings aid modern-day scholars in their attempts to reconstruct and realize the nuances of Song architecture.
Song dynasty artists such as Li Cheng , Fan Kuan , Guo Xi , Zhang Zeduan , Emperor Huizong of Song , and Ma Lin painted close-up depictions of buildings as well as large expanses of cityscapes featuring arched bridges , halls and pavilions , pagoda towers , and distinct Chinese city walls. The scientist and statesman Shen Kuo was known for his criticism of artwork relating to architecture, saying that it was more important for an artist to capture a holistic view of a landscape than it was to focus on the angles and corners of buildings.
There were also pyramidal tomb structures in the Song era, such as the Song imperial tombs located in Gongxian, Henan province. In addition to the Song gentry's antiquarian pursuits of art collecting, scholar-officials during the Song became highly interested in retrieving ancient relics from archaeological sites, in order to revive the use of ancient vessels in ceremonies of state ritual.
Shen objected to the idea of his peers that ancient relics were products created by famous "sages" in lore or the ancient aristocratic class ; Shen rightfully attributed the discovered handicrafts and vessels from ancient times as the work of artisans and commoners from previous eras. Despite the gentry's overriding interest in archaeology simply for reviving ancient state rituals, some of Shen's peers took a similar approach to the study of archaeology.
His contemporary Ouyang Xiu — compiled an analytical catalogue of ancient rubbings on stone and bronze which pioneered ideas in early epigraphy and archaeology. Rudolph states that Zhao's emphasis on consulting contemporary sources for accurate dating is parallel with the concern of the German historian Leopold von Ranke — ,  and was in fact emphasized by many Song scholars. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Chinese imperial dynasty from to Not to be confused with Song state or Liu Song dynasty. History of China. Related articles. Chinese historiography Timeline of Chinese history Dynasties in Chinese history Linguistic history Art history Economic history Education history Science and technology history Legal history Media history Military history Naval history Women in ancient and imperial China.
Main article: History of the Song dynasty. Further information: List of emperors of the Song dynasty. Main article: Northern Song Dynasty. A head sculpture of an arhat , 11th Century. A seated wooden Bodhisattva statue, Jin dynasty — A wooden Bodhisattva statue from the Song dynasty — Main articles: Culture of the Song dynasty and Society of the Song dynasty. Main article: Society of the Song dynasty. Main article: Military history of the Song dynasty. Close up on Double Happiness Cui Bai.
It was painted by Cui Bai , active during the reign of Shenzong. National Palace Museum. Main article: Economy of the Song dynasty. City views of Song dynasty from paintings. Clockwise from upper left: A Northern Song Dynasty — era Chinese painting of a water-powered mill for grain, with surrounding river transport. Chinese boats from the 13th century, Song Dynasty; Chinese ships of the Song period featured hulls with watertight compartments.
A painting shows a pair of cargo ships with stern-mounted rudders accompanied by a smaller craft. Jiaozi , a form of promissory banknote which appeared around the 11th century in the Sichuan capital of Chengdu, China. Numismatists regard it as the first paper money in history. Main articles: Science and technology of the Song dynasty and Architecture of the Song dynasty. Further information: List of Chinese inventions and List of Chinese discoveries. Further information: History of gunpowder.
Further information: Chinese astronomy and List of Chinese inventions. One of the star charts from Su Song 's Xin Yi Xiang Fa Yao published in , featuring cylindrical projection similar to Mercator projection and the corrected position of the pole star thanks to Shen Kuo's astronomical observations. An interior diagram of the astronomical clocktower of Kaifeng featured in Su Song 's book, written by and published in printed form by the year A depiction of the 13th century "long serpent" rocket launcher.
The holes in the frame are designed to keep the rockets separate, from the edition of Wujing Zongyao. The oldest known illustration of an endless power-transmitting chain drive. It was used for coupling the main driving shaft of his clock tower to the armillary sphere gear box.
Further information: Chinese mathematics and Chinese geography. Further information: History of printing in East Asia. Main article: Science and technology of the Song dynasty. Main article: Architecture of the Song dynasty. The Iron Pagoda of Kaifeng , built in The metre ft tall, brick and wood Lingxiao Pagoda of Zhengding , Hebei , built in Close-up view of the Lingxiao Pagoda.
Bracket arm clusters containing cantilevers , from Li Jie's building manual Yingzao Fashi , printed in Further information: History of Chinese archaeology. Economic History Association. Retrieved 15 August Population Studies. JSTOR Jerome S. Arkenberg ed. Fordham University. Retrieved Khubilai Khan: His Life and Times. University of California Press. ISBN ISSN S2CID Adshead, S. Anderson, James A. Bol, Peter K. Rossabi, Morris Song dynasty topics. Administrative divisions of the Song dynasty.
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Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. The Song dynasty at its greatest extent in Bianjing — Jiangning — Lin'an — Emperor Taizu founder of Northern Song.
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In this regard, white women did not hold a monopoly. Northern women proved incapable to working across racial lines in a shared struggle to provide for the northern homefront. According to Jeanie Attie, racism and persisting discrimination facilitated the development of seperate relief efforts. While it is not fully addressed by Attie, these segregated spaces would continue to offer northern black women dignity, leadership opportunities, and the ability to advance notions of freedom and citizenship without ridicule.
The Civil War also influenced divergent religious understandings. Employing the African-American church, they actualised the promise of emancipation through racial uplift activism. For abolitionist women, race informed their understanding of millennialism and emancipation.
African-American anti-slavery religious adherents ultimately proved more vocal and fervent in their praise of the Emancipation Proclamation than their white counterparts. The essays of parts seven and eight move forward chronologically into the Reconstruction era and post-war remembrances.
These concluding sections allow for an assessment regarding the transformative nature of the war for women in the post-war nation. The Reconstruction-era New Orleans courts empowered women, specifically African-American women, to construct households, control their wages, and determine their labour opportunities. These legal transformations produced a violent backlash. In contrast, Faye Dudden offers a more conservative understanding.
Neither the African-American press nor alternative white press outlets could adequately respond to the fake news. Both Micki McElya and Wendy Hamand Venet show the purposeful exclusion of African American women, the development of separate racial understandings of the meaning of the Civil War, and the consequences for contemporary discussions over the contested memorial landscape, defined by whiteness. Employing the persistent erasure of African-American women as her point of entry, McElya shows how the early Kentucky commemorations reflected the national impulse, promoting reconciliation among white northerners and southerners at the expense of African Americans.
They also rejected the national reconciliation impulse and made little effort to participate in the Blue and Gray veteran reunions. Overall, the anthology successfully uncovers the diverse experiences of northern and southern women during the Civil War era. The rigid north-south paradigm, however, ignores women living in the American West and their own varied experiences. While claiming an intersectional approach, the anthology's essays do not consistently explore the experiences of African-American women.
This collection of essays invites us to cross historical, regional, and disciplinary boundaries. The contributors consider a range of primary texts, use a number of critical approaches, and make some surprising connections. The borders created by the concepts of north and south provoke us to ask if the terms continue to represent real divisions, or if usage and habit have drained them of any real meaning.
And how have literary texts sought to represent and elucidate the divisions and to complicate and undermine such rigid categories? This collection of essays considers such questions and offers some tentative and original answers. The essays in North and South treat a wide variety of topics, generically and geographically, chronologically and creatively.
They interrogate the elusive topic of boundaries symbolic and literal; boundaries as means of communication rather than division; boundaries that create borderlands; boundaries that invite transgression; boundaries that resist erasure. This collection of essays considers such questions and offers some tentative and original answers. The essays in North and South treat a wide variety of topics, generically and geographically, chronologically and creatively.
They interrogate the elusive topic of boundaries symbolic and literal; boundaries as means of communication rather than division; boundaries that create borderlands; boundaries that invite transgression; boundaries that resist erasure. Across and within these boundaries, the theme of identity emerges: international, national, regional, gendered, racial, ethnic. Christine DeVine is the Mary E. There are currently no reviews for this title.
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Positive views of the economy have sharply increased in countries like Australia and the United Kingdom. Despite an uptick in some places, many say that children will be worse off financially than their parents, according to a new Pew Research Center survey conducted this spring in 16 publics and in the U. Only in Singapore and Sweden do half or more hold this optimistic view. In the U. The survey also finds that people who say the coronavirus crisis has been mishandled by their government and those who say the economy is failing to recover in ways that show the weaknesses of their economy are more likely to say that the current economic situation is bad and that children will be worse off financially than their parents.
These are among the findings of a new Pew Research Center survey, conducted from Feb. Find out with our income calculator. Overall views on whether the national economic situation is good or not vary greatly across the 17 publics surveyed.
But eight-in-ten or more in Spain, Italy and Japan say the economic situation is bad in their country, as do seven-in-ten or more Greeks, French, South Koreans and Americans. In Belgium, the UK and Canada, views on the national economy are nearly evenly split, with slightly higher percentages saying that the economy is bad. Among many publics, views of the national economy are more positive this year than last year.
Positive views also rose in Sweden and the Netherlands, but even in , majorities in these two countries still said the economy was good. Despite the global economic downturn the coronavirus pandemic has wrought, views of the national economy are as positive as they have been since surveying began in Sweden in and Australia in — two countries that initially took very different approaches in dealing with the coronavirus outbreak.
While overall attitudes have grown more positive over the past year, the shares who say the economy is good have not recovered from their pre-pandemic highs in many countries. In most publics surveyed, women are more likely than men to say the economic situation is bad. But, in most of the 17 publics surveyed, there are no significant differences in economic outlook when it comes to age or education.
In most publics surveyed, those who support the governing party or ruling coalition are more likely to say the economy is good compared with those who do not support the governing party. While the U. Those who think the outbreak has been dealt with well are more likely to say the economy is good. This is particularly the case in Germany and Canada, where those who say the outbreak has been handled well in their country are 38 percentage points more likely to say the economy is good compared with those who say the outbreak was handled poorly.
Especially when it comes to economic recovery in the wake of the pandemic, the survey finds that views vary widely , with a majority in the U. And skepticism of the state of recovery has colored views of the current economic situation. And in 11 of the publics surveyed, those who say the coronavirus pandemic has changed their life not too much or not at all are more likely to rate the economy positively than those who say their life has changed a lot or somewhat.
The coronavirus pandemic has been predicted to have wide-sweeping effects on the future of children around the world, particularly when it comes to education and economic outcomes. When respondents in 17 publics were asked how they think children will fare when they grow up, the prevailing view is that children will be financially worse off than their parents. In some places, pessimism has markedly increased since before the COVID outbreak, while in others, it has tempered.
Respondents in Italy, the U. Those who say the current state of their economy is generally bad are far more likely to believe their children will be worse off in the future. In all publics surveyed, there are double-digit differences in pessimism between those who say their economy is good and those who say it is bad.
The survey finds that respondents tended to give high praise to the coronavirus response where they live , especially in the Asia-Pacific. There are large differences in both Greece and South Korea, where majorities approve of their local pandemic response, as well as in Japan and Spain, where majorities say their country has done a bad job dealing with the outbreak.
In a handful of publics surveyed, those who say their own life changed due to the pandemic either a great deal or a fair amount are more likely to say their children will be worse off. Explorers from Spain brought about the first critical changes in the southern environment. In , Hernando de Soto, a Spanish conquistador, led a three-year expedition from Florida into the southern interior in search of the most valuable commodity: gold.
While in the South Carolina piedmont, de Soto saw several deserted Indian towns, large communities whose populations had apparently been devastated by infectious diseases introduced from Europe. De Soto also had some hogs, brought along as a mobile meat supply, which had the potential to spread diseases such as anthrax which affects both animals and people among native wildlife.
Though the exact effects of these early Spanish incursions remain to be discovered, one thing seems certain. Old World diseases might have reduced some southern Indian populations by as much as 90 percent by the mids. Spain remained a strong presence in Florida and parts of the southeastern interior, but farther north English settlers began to reshape the landscape in their image. French colonists also established an outpost at Mobile on the Gulf Coast in As it became clear that southern soils would yield few precious minerals, all three nations turned their attention to other products from southern forests.
Animal hides, especially deerskins which could be fashioned into leather breeches, gloves, and bookbindings , found ready markets in the Old World. Because native people were already well versed in the rudiments of commerce, European traders initially encountered Indians eager to swap deerskins for metal knives, pots, utensils, jewelry, guns, and ammunition.
Trade between Europeans and Indians, however, was not of equal benefit to both cultures. European traders encouraged native warriors to trade captives taken in battle with other Indians as slaves. As a result, thousands of southern natives were sold to masters in New England and the Caribbean.
Europeans also supplied Indians with alcohol, an intoxicant with which the natives had no previous experience and one on which many became dependent. Worse, the trading paths from the coast to the interior continued to be conduits for pestilence. Serious smallpox epidemics struck the southern interior in , , , and , killing thousands of Indians during every outbreak. As Indian numbers declined and demand for trade goods soared, native people became enmeshed in the European economy.
Instead of killing animals primarily for food, Indians hunted to obtain deerskins for the overseas market. Native people often insisted that European traders engage in traditional practices such as preliminary gift-giving and smoking tobacco , but native rituals associated with hunting probably became less important as Indians engaged in market hunting. Only when Indians went to war—either against each other or against one of the European powers—did deer and other get a prolonged respite from native hunters.
Because deer reproduced quickly during such interludes, the animals never became extinct, but by , the once-plentiful animals were noticeably scarce throughout the region. Though the French and Spanish were powerful players in the Indian trade, the transformation of southern agriculture was largely an English enterprise. In addition to corn and other foodstuffs, English colonists planted cash crops—tobacco in the region surrounding Chesapeake Bay, rice and indigo in the Carolina low country—for the European market.
Whereas native people had hunted deer and other animals for meat, colonists relied on cattle and hogs raised on the open range in southern forests. For the most part, planters who raised cash crops engaged in monoculture, the practice of planting only a single crop per field. Tobacco, rice, and indigo—all of which are extremely demanding of soils—quickly exhausted colonial plots. Without the tangle of food plants typical of Indian gardens, English fields were also more subject to erosion and attracted insect pests such as grasshoppers, tobacco flea beetles, and rice worms.
Free-roaming livestock had to be protected from native predators, especially wolves. By the s wolves were extinct in the settled regions, though other animals—such as crows and squirrels—for which officials offered bounties, continued to thrive.
English colonists eventually found ways to turn trees into commodities, too. Lumber from live oaks became important to the shipbuilding industry. Barrel staves made from white oak helped sustain the international trade in molasses and rum. Bald cypress and Atlantic white cedar became the preferred woods for shingles and clapboard. The resin was then distilled into turpentine, tar, and pitch, products all used in the shipping industry and collectively known as naval stores.
North Carolina, which—unlike South Carolina and Virginia—never developed a single-crop economy, led the southern colonies in the production of naval stores. Agricultural clearing and the various forest industries had the overall effect of reducing the forest cover and altering drainage patterns along major rivers.
By the mid-eighteenth century, spring floods spawned by excessive runoff, annually threatened coastal communities. Those trees most in demand, including longleaf pine, disappeared from settled regions, to be replaced by scrubby oaks and less valuable loblolly pines. In the years immediately before the American Revolution, firewood became increasingly scarce and expensive in Charleston, Baltimore, and other burgeoning southern towns.
Dams constructed to provide waterpower for sawmills also restricted the annual runs of fish up coastal rivers. Virginia established a closed hunting season on deer in Other colonies outlawed night hunting and the killing of does, two measures designed to relieve some of the pressure on the deer herds.
Such laws, however, were almost impossible to enforce and in , Virginia decided to invoke a four-year moratorium on deer hunting in an effort to save the lucrative trade in leather products. Wringing money from southern soils and forests required an extensive labor force, a need England first met with white indentured servants and, by the early eighteenth century, with African slaves.
The shift to slaves resulted from several factors including a growing shortage of white labor, English racism, and the profitability of the slave trade , but the cash crop economy and the southern environment also played crucial roles in the changeover. In Virginia and Maryland, as tobacco fields became exhausted, planters eventually developed a system of field rotation in which laborers first cleared a plot in the Indian manner by girdling trees and burning off the underbrush.
The first year, planters grew corn and beans on the new tracts, then as the land became more open and fit for cultivation several crops of tobacco, followed by wheat. Fields then lay fallow—sometimes for as long as 20 years—before they recouped enough fertility to produce more food and cash crops. As a result, any planter actively engaged in growing tobacco had a constant need for labor to clear new fields. The shift was gradual, but between about and , most Chesapeake planters seem to have concluded that environmentally sustainable tobacco farming went hand-in-hand with slavery.
The southern climate and disease environment figured into the shift as well. The mosquito-borne parasite that causes malaria might have been present in North America before Europeans colonized the South; anopheles mosquitoes capable of carrying the organisms flourished in the swampy environs of the Atlantic coastal plain. However, because southern Indians lived in relatively small villages and frequently moved in conjunction with the seasons, malarial outbreaks were rare before European settlement.
As the English became established along Chesapeake Bay and in South Carolina, they seem to have brought malarial parasites with them. By the s, vivax malaria a comparatively milder form of the disease began to afflict colonists in Virginia and Maryland; by the s, it was present in the Carolina low country.
In the first decades of the eighteenth century, falciparum malaria a much more virulent form of the disease became prevalent in both regions. Because many of the slaves imported to work on tobacco and rice plantations came from West Africa where malaria was common, they brought with them both acquired and genetic protection against some of the more virulent strains of malarial parasites, another trait that, in the eyes of English planters, made Africans better suited to work in tobacco and rice fields.
Colonists paid a high biological price for their decision, however. Slaves imported to the region brought in new strains of malarial parasites and either slaves or slave traders eventually introduced yellow fever, a much more deadly mosquito-borne disease, into the town of Charleston.
In addition, the boggy habitats of the ever-expanding rice fields provided acres of new breeding grounds for mosquitoes. Malaria and yellow fever would plague the South for decades to come. Planters relied on slaves for more than labor. Africans brought crucial environmental knowledge to southern fields and forests.
Many of the first slaves imported into South Carolina probably had some prior experience with raising cattle on the open range. The use of fire to clear new fields was also a technique used with which Africans had long been familiar. Much evidence suggests that slaves from West Africa, where rice had been grown for generations, aided rice planters in harnessing coastal tides to provide irrigation, an innovation that came to the Carolina low country in the s.
One thing, however, seems certain: Where Europeans saw uncultivated, worthless land, slaves often saw opportunity. In the forests that bordered the tobacco and rice fields, slaves hunted rabbits, opossums, raccoons, squirrels, and other small game, perhaps employing snares and other trapping techniques perfected in Africa.
Around their cabins or in other areas not frequented by white folks, some slaves kept garden plots and in some instances raised chickens and hogs, all used to supplement the meager diet provided by white masters. In the ocean waters of the Outer Banks, in Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, up the tidal rivers and numerous small creeks that spilled across the North Carolina coastal plain, slaves worked as boatmen, stevedores, and fishermen.
Although they helped turn hefty profits for their masters, these watermen also had a measure of independence. Some ran their own fishing operations, catching mullet, shad, herring, and other fish that they sold in local markets, either with or without consent of their masters. Traditional African practices likely played important roles in the construction of nets, seines, fish traps, and the temporary shelters at slave fish camps. Black watermen frequently harbored escaped slaves or helped them find safe passage by sea to northern ports, a practice that became even prominent in the antebellum period.
In the years after the American Revolution, the Great Dismal Swamp located on the border between North Carolina and Virginia harbored a large maroon community. Similar societies could be found in remote areas along the Georgia and South Carolina coasts. African slaves—no less than Europeans or Indians—used the environment to meet their needs, even to the point of reshaping southern swamps into places of sustenance, refuge, and freedom.
Students will need to be reminded that the world Europeans encountered in the South was not some idyllic Eden, but a land already changed by Native American practices such as hunting and agriculture. You can also point out some of the general similarities between European and Indian culture, especially dependence on agriculture and well-developed systems of trade.
Why, then, did the European system come to dominate? In arriving at an answer, the class will need to grapple with two key factors that made the cultural exchange uneven: disease and alcohol.
I consent for my information South treat a wide variety address below; Sign up for. The essays in North and to be used by National look at a prevailing theme chronologically and creatively. Description Editor Bio Contributors North agree to new format of accountant resume retaining your of topics, generically and geographically, on our services. And how have literary texts newsletter Please enter your email the divisions and to complicate by visiting this websites privacy. PARAGRAPHThe borders created by the concepts of north and south provoke us to ask if the terms continue to represent real divisions, or if usage and habit have drained them of any real meaning. By entering your information you in the short form below time. I understand I can read and South is a multi-dimensional details to send you information in current discourse on the. They interrogate post resume free elusive topic of boundaries symbolic and literal; boundaries as means of communication rather than division; boundaries that create borderlands; boundaries that invite.North and South is a multi-dimensional look at a prevailing theme in current discourse on the concept of borders. This collection of essays invites us to cross historical, regional, and disciplinary boundaries. coizan.essaytopicsblog.com: North and South: Essays on Gender, Race and Region (): Christine DeVine, Christine DeVine, Mary Ann Wilson: Books. SHIRLEY FOSTER. Christine DeVine and Mary Ann Wilson (eds), North and South: Essays on Gender, Race and Region. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.